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through an approved course of practical training lasting

SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. four months, either at a mine or in engineering works.

LONDON. The subjects that may be offered are :-(a) mathematics for applied science; (b) physics and chemistry: (c) French Royal Society, February 16.—"Further Observations on and German translation ; (d) engineering principles and Slip-Bands.---Preliminary Note." By Walter Rosenhain. machine drawing; (e) surveying ; (1) geology; (g) miner- Communicated by Prof. Ewing, F.R.S. alogy; (h) mining and engineering, hygiene and mine- The paper describes what the author believes to be ventilation ; (i) electricity; (j) assaying. For the ordinary novel method of investigating the micro-structure of metals, diploma candidates will be required to pass in (a), (b), and and some preliminary results obtained by its aid. The (c), and in not less than three of the remaining subjects, method was devised in order to throw further light on the provided that (f), (g), and (i) are not taken together with- true nature of slip-bands, and the preliminary results relate out one or more of the others. Candidates who propose to mainly to this question. become colliery managers and desire to obtain exemption A direct means of examining the surface configuration of from two of the five years' underground work required by

a piece of metal upon which slip-bands have been produced the Home Office as a qualification for a certificate as would be presented by a transverse section of such a colliery manager, must obtain a special diploma by passing specimen, provided that the section could be produced with in the subjects (a), (b), (c), (h), and three (not being an absolutely sharp edge, but no useful result can be obf, g, i) of the remainder, and by taking their four months' tained by cutting the specimen through and simply polisb. course of practical training at a mine.

ing the exposed section. The edges of specimens prepared by the usual methods of polishing are always rounded off

so that it becomes impossible to focus upon any definite Prof. W. James, of Harvard University, has accepted, defect, there would be no guarantee that the edge fra

edge with high-power lenses; and even apart from this Science reports, the acting professorship of philosophy at

presented a true section of the pre-existing surface. Stanford University. He will lecture at Stanford during the second half of the next academic year, and will organise a department of philosophy for the university.

A GENERAL meeting of the Association of Teachers in Technical Institutes will be held on Saturday, March 25, at the Regent Street Polytechnic, London, when an address, to be followed by a discussion, will be delivered by Mr. W. J. Lineham, head of the engineering department, Goldsmiths' Institute, entitled “ Technical Training-a Teacher's Views."

In connection with the International Exposition to be held at Liége, Belgium, from April to November during the present year, it is proposed to hold an International Congress of Childhood on September 17-20. The congress will be organised in four sections, as follows :-(1) education of children ; (2) study of children ; (3) care and training of abnormal children; (4) parents' associations, mothers' clubs, and other supplementary agencies for the improvement of youth.

The council of Liverpool University has accepted an offer from the president, Mr. E. K. Muspratt, to provide for an extension and equipment of the chemical laboratories at an estimated cost of 10,500l. The following contributions for the extension and maintenance of the chemical department have also been acknowledged by the council :1001. per annum for five years from the C'nited Alkali Company, Ltd., 100l. each from Mr. George Wall, West Kirby, and Mr. T. Threllfall, London.

A new technical college and secondary school at East Fig. 1.- Transverse Section of Slip-bands. Vertical illumination 1206 Ham was opened by the Prince and Princess of Wales

diameters. on Saturday. The building has been erected and equipped of about 24,00ol., towards which the Essex County

The author has adopted the principle sometimr. used in Council has contributed 6oool., and the remainder has been made up by the East Ham Corporation. The accommoda optical work of supporting the surface, which in sectiu

becomes the edge, by means of an adherent layer ol hard tion includes a botanical room, chemical class-room and material ; but the conditions which such a layer must satis laboratory, physics laboratory, carpenter's shop, and provision for the pursuit of various crafts-plumbing, metal

for the purposes of metallography are very stringent. In

order to satisfy them, the author uses a deposit of anothiet work, brickwork, &c. In replying to the address presented by the Mayor of East Ham, the Prince of Wales said :- proved satisfactory.

metal obtained by electrolytic means, and this method haIt is difficult to realise that only ten years ago these The specimens used consisted of strips of the mildes! crowded streets were green lanes, that your population has steel, and after preparation an electro-deposit of copper WA multiplied nearly twentyfold in the last thirty years, and applied to them. By first bending the strips into a Baru that within your borough one industry alone employs more shape, short portions of their length could be polished in than 10,000 men. You have very rightly recognised that the usual manner for microscopic examination; subsequent this remarkable growth carries with it serious responsi- the strips could be readily strained in tension. The slip bilities. The vast and rapidly increasing population of bands and other features of the specimens having ber the borough necessitates the provision of suitable secondary satisfactorily observed, electro-deposition was procede and technical education, and in this institution you are with, care being taken to avoid chemical action on it furnishing that educational equipment for the rising gener- prepared surface by the preliminary use of a bath of copper ation which is indispensable if we intend to maintain our cyanide. place in the great struggle for commercial supremacy. My The specimens were then cut across. In order to obtais heart is with you in all such undertakings as that which a satisfactory polish, the ordinary method of polishing have we are about to inaugurate, and I trust that every success to be modified; it was found that polishing with rouge may attend your useful and patriotic efforts.

rapidly eroded a deep groove between the copper and iron.

[graphic]

at a ca

were

thus defeating the object of the method. A satisfactory culated, if applied for the time given by the theory. In polishing medium for this and other purposes where surface this way it is proved that a metal wire will stand a load, erosion is undesirable was found in calcined oxide of momentarily exceeding that which (steadily applied) would magnesium, the magnesia powder being used in the same break it, with but very small permanent extension. In the way as rouge.

case of the iron wire, the elastic limit was 17.8 tons per The section, when polished by means of magnesia, is square inch, and the breaking stress 28.5 tons; and it was not yet ready for examination, as it is found that a con- found that a load reaching 331 tons, and exceeding the siderable amount of metal is smeared or dragged over the elastic limit for 1/1000 sec., produced very little permanent surface, more or less obliterating the true boundary line extension. Similar results were found for copper wire. which it is desired to examine. To overcome this obstacle, it is arranged that the last rubbing on emery paper shall February 23.-—"On a New Rhabdosphere." By George be done in a direction approximately parallel to the Murray, F.R.S. boundary of the two metals; the direction of rubbing The author refers to the interest which the rhabdospheres during the final polishing should then be at right-angles and coccospheres possess, not only to naturalists, but to to the boundary, the unavoidable tendency to drag or geologists and students of deep-sea deposits. He names it smear then being such as to draw the iron over the copper R. Blackmaniana, after Mr. V. H. Blackman, his fellow on the side where the boundary is to be examined,

author in an exhaustive study of such organisms (Phil. The film of metal smeared over the boundary in these Trans., B., vol. cxc., 1898). It was obtained by Mr. Murray circumstances is extremely thin, and can be removed by on the outward voyage to the Cape of the Discovery, slight etching with picric acid. This treatment leaves a in lat. 28° 25' S., long. 23° 56' W., and differs from the clearly defined boundary line appearing under a certain only other forms, two in number, known to science in incidence of “ vertical ” illumination as a narrow black possessing tapering, acute, spinous processes in contrast line, and under other illumination being visible merely by to the trumpet-shaped and club-shaped processes of the two the colour-contrast between the iron and copper.

known species. No sign of the new form has yet been When a previously polished and etched specimen of iron detected in the deep-sea deposits or geological formations, which has had slip-bands developed upon its surface by Mr. Murray accounting for this by the minuteness and strain is treated and examined in this way, the boundary extreme tenuity of the spines. line shows well-marked steps or serrations, readily visible under a magnification of 1000 diameters. To show that

March 2.-“ Further Researches on the Temperature these steps were not due to any of the processes gone

Classification of Stars, No. 2." By Sir Norman Lockyer, through by the specimen, such as the initial etching of the

K.C.B., F.R.S. prepared surface or the electro-deposition itself, a series of

The paper contains a discussion of the more recent phototest specimens was prepared and treated in a similar

graphs obtained with a calcite-quartz prismatic camera. manner, except that either the preliminary etching, or the

Each negative contained the spectra of two stars, obtained deformation, or both, were omitted. The stepped boundary

under identical conditions of altitude, exposure and dewas always found in specimens where slip-bands had been velopment, the relative temperatures of which produced, but not otherwise.

estimated by comparing the relative intensities of their The author therefore feels justified in concluding that the

ultra-violet and their red radiations. The term temsteps seen in transverse sections of strained specimens are

perature is understood to include the possible effects of the sectional views of slip-bands. It will be seen that the

electrical variations. In a previous paper, communicated to teps, although very minute, are perfectly distinctive, and

the society in February, 1904, the author showed that by that they could not be mistaken for generally rounded

thus comparing the relative temperatures of those stellar foldings of the surface; they possess, in fact, a general genera

which were placed on different levels of the geometrical character, which the author regards as con

chemical classification temperature curve, their arrangeclusive evidence that they are caused by slip on cleavage or

ment on that curve was vindicated. In the recent regliding planes of the crystals, and not by any folding or

search the relative temperatures of the genera placed on the (rumpling of the metal.

same horizons, but on the opposite sides, of the curve were

similarly compared, with the result that their equality of " The Effects of Momentary Stresses in Metals.' Ву

temperature, as suggested by the chemical classification, Prof. Bertram Hopkinson, Communicated by Prof. Ewing,

was confirmed. The results also indicate that specific F.R.S.

differences exist which will necessitate the subdivision of the If a wire be hung from a firm and massive support, and previously proposed

genera” into species.if a falling weight strike a stop at the lower end of the wire, with a velocity V, it is easy to calculate the strain

Entomological Society, March 1.-Mr. F. Merrifield, at any point in the wire at any subsequent time, if it be

president, in the chair.-Exhibitions.--(1) An example of assumed to be perfectly elastic. When the weight strikes,

Oxypoda sericea, Heer, taken in Dulwich Wood, June 17, a wave of extension starts up the wire and travels with a

1904, a species new to Britain ; (2) O. nigrina, Wat., with

a type lent by Mr. E. A. Waterhouse, to demonstrate that velocity a= VE/P, where E is Young's modulus, and p is it is not synonymous with sericea as stated on the Conthe density. For steel a' is about 17,000 foot-seconds. When

tinent; (3) 0. exigua, which is also regarded there as the wave reaches the top end, it is reflected down the wire. The history of the strain at any point of the wire is as

synonymous with nigrina : H. St. J. Donisthorpe.-Series

of Colias edusa, with var. helice, bred from one helice, follows:- When the wave reaches it, the strain, which was sent by Dr. T. A. Chapman from the South of France, zero, suddenly becomes V/a; it then diminishes as the wave

to show the proportion of type and variety obtained : H. passes over it, according to an exponential law, until the Main and A. Harrison. The results of similar experireflected wave reaches it, when it again increases by V/a. ments with Amphidasys betularia, bred from a ở var. Each bit of the wire is, therefore, subjected to strain which doubledayaria, and a type 9 taken in cop. at Woodford, rises suddenly, and then very rapidly diminishes. The Essex, in 1903, were also shown.-Specimen of Helops maximum strain at any time or place occurs at the top of striata, showing an abnormal formation of the right anthe wire, where it is 2V/a at the moment when the wave tenna, which was divided into two branches from the fifth arrives there. For a height of fall of 10 feet, and an iron joint: R. Priske.-(1) Examples of Hydrotaea pilipes, wire, 2V;a is 0.003, and the corresponding stress is about Stein, 8 and 9, the latter sex being previously unknown ; 42 tons per square inch, so that momentary strains greatly (2) several specimens of Hydrotaea tuberculata, Rond, not exceeding the elastic limit may be produced in this way. hitherto recorded as British, captured in various localities ;

In the experiments described in the paper, the momentary P. H. Grimshaw.-Cocoons, and perfect imagines of extension in the top 20 inches of the wire, produced by hybrid Saturniids, including and of S. pavonia, L., a blow, was measured by electrical means, and compared X S. pyri, Scheff., with added specimens of both sexes of with that given by the elastic theory. Where the two the parent forms for comparison, the cross product reagree, and not much permanent extension is left, it follows sembling a large S. pavonia rather than a small S. pyri. that the theory is correctly applied, and that the material The exhibit further included three and three 9 # of is substantially elastic up to the maximum stress, so cal- which the parent was S. pavonia, and the o parent a

worn

at

screen.

as

hybrid between S. pavonia, , and S. spini, f, viz. xH. superciliosa x D. acuta.-Ecology and deposits of the the cross product to which Prof. Standfuss has given Cape Verde marine fauna : C. Crossland. The author the name Š. bornemanni : Dr. F. A. Dixey.—(1) Groups pointed out that so far as the Cape Verde group was conof synaposematic Hymenoptera and Diptera captured by cerned there was no evidence of any common tropical Mr. A. H. Hamm, of the Hope Department, Oxford marine fauna, though certain species were found in both University Museum; (2) three much specimens the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Reef animals were re of Papilio hesperus, taken Entebbe in 1903, by markably few in number, the fauna in their place having a Mr. C. A. Wiggins, to show that the tails of a Papilio, if considerable subtropical constituent. Rock simulating coral untouched by enemies, can endure a great deal of wear ; rag was formed at the low-tide level by serpulid tubes fused (3) Nymphaline butterflies from northern China, apparently together by Lithothamnion, and by the later and Foram mimetic of the male Hypolimnas misippus, which is not inifera between 5 and 20 fathoms. The absence of recis known to occur in this region : Prof. E. B. Poulton, might be due in some degree to the remarkably steep coast. F.R.S.-Examples of Pyrameis atalanta and Aglais urticae, of the islands, but it was more especially owing to the illustrating the effects of cold season breeding by Mr. Har- extraordinary dominance of boring sponges, worms, and wood, of Colchester, some of them lent by Mr. R. S. Mit-molluscs. Beach sandstone was formed by the deposition ford : the President.-Papers :-Butterfly hunting in British of calcareous cement where the fresh water met the salt: Columbia and Canada : Mrs. De la B. Nicholl.-On three

it was only found in certain situations, and was everywhere remarkable new genera of Microlepidoptera : Sir George being slowly eroded away by the sea.-A revision of the Hampson.-Descriptions of some new species of diurnal South-American cichlid genera, Crenacara, Batrachops, and Lepidoptera, collected by Mr. Harold Cookson in northern

Crenicichla : C. Tate Regan. Twenty-three species were Rhodesia in 1903-4. The Lycænidæ and Hesperiidæ de- described, four of them new to science.-A new antelope scribed by Hamilton H. Druce : H. Druce.-Descriptions from British East Africa : Captain R. Meinertzhagen. of some new species of Satyridæ from South America : Royal Astronomical Society, March 10 -Mr. W. H. Mawy F. Du Cane Godman.--Additions to a knowledge of the president, in the chair.--Description of the spectrobeliohomopterous family of Cicadidæ : W. L. Distant.

graph of the Solar Physics Observatory: Dr. W. J. S. Faraday Society, March 6.— Recent developments in Lockyer. The complete instrument consists of a siderostat

to throw the solar beam in a horizontal and southerly electric smelting in connection with iron and steel : F. W. Harbord. The paper embodies the principal results of the direction, a lens placed in this beam to form the solar investigations made by the commission sent to Europe last

image, and the spectroheliograph itself to photograph in

monochromatic light the image thus formed. The apparatus year by the Canadian Government for the purpose of reporting upon the different thermoelectric processes for the

was fully explained and illustrated by photographs on the

Specimens of results obtained were also exhibited, smelting of iron ores and the manufacture of steel at work in Europe, together with some additional information ing its surface, becoming thicker and more agglomerated

the photographs of the sun showing the fine network coverbringing the subject up-to-date. The author acted

in middle and low latitudes to form the calcium floculi. metallurgist to that commission. The following general | The sun-spots appear to be closely related to these flocculi, conclusions are stated in the paper :-(a) Steel, equal in all respects to the best Sheffield crucible steel, can be pro- they give brilliant images in the "K" or calciom

but the prominences bear no relation to them, though duced even in this country, either by the Kjellin, Héroult, light. The large sun-spot of January 29 to February 11, or Keller proceses, at a cost considerably less than the cost of producing a high-class crucible steel, assuming electric

and the contemporaneous magnetic disturbances : Astro

nomer Royal. A series of photographs taken at the energy to cost ol. per E.H.P.-year. (b) At present, Royal Observatory, Greenwich, was shown on the screes. structural steel, to compete with Siemens or Bessemer steel,

Spectroscopic observations of the recent_great sun-spot cannot be economically produced in the electric furnaces, and such furnaces can be used commercially for the produc- with the reversed lines, the widened lines, &c., and the

and associated prominences : A. Fowler. The paper dealt tion of only very high-class steel for special purposes. spectra of the chromosphere and prominences overlying the (c) Speaking generally, the reactions in the electric smelting spot on the western limb.- Observations of the great surfurnace are similar to those taking place in the blast spot made at Stonyhurst, and photographs of the spectra: furnace. By altering the burden and regulating the temperature by varying the electric current, any grade of iron,

Father Cortie.—Reply to criticisms of a paper on sun

spots and the associated magnetic disturbances : E. W. grey or white, can be obtained, and the change from one

Maunder. grade to another is effected more rapidly than in the blast furnace. (d) Pig iron can be produced on a commercial Physical Society, March 10 --Dr. R. T. Glazeltoal, scale at a price to compete with the blast furnace, only past-president, in the chair.--On direct reading resistance when electric energy is very cheap and fuel very dear. thermometers, with a note on composite thermocouples : A. Under ordinary conditions, where blast furnaces are an es- Campbell. The paper describes two methods by which tablished industry, electric smelting cannot compete; but the reading of a resistance-box in connection with a in special cases, where ample water-power is available, and platinum resistance-thermometer gives directly the actual blast furnace coke is not readily obtainable, electric smelt-temperature without the use of any formula or table --On ing may be commercially successful.

the stresses in the earth's crust before and after the sinking

of a bore-hole : Dr. Chree. In NATURE, October 20, 1904. Zoological Society, March 7.-Dr. W. T. Blanford, there appeared letters by Mr. G. Martin and the Hon. F.R.S., vice-president, in the chair. ---Pictures of the zebra inc. A. Parsons dealing with the size of the stresses in the " Aldrovandus" (1640) and the “ Commentarius ” of Ludol-earth's crust and speculating as to what would happen i phus (1691): H. Scherren. In the course of his remarks a hole were bored to a depth of 12 miles. The present Mr. Scherren said that in the seventeenth century zebras (now paper discusses the subject, treating the earth as an known as Equus grevyi) had been sent by the ruler of elastic solid, and points out the various uncertainties that Abyssinia to the governor of the Dutch East India exist. Solutions are presented of a number of mathematical Company at Batavia, and to the Sultan of Turkey, so that problems having a bearing on one or other of the passithe species was seen in Europe two centuries before th bilities discussed. The principal novel case considered is type of Equus grevyi reached France in 1882. In proof, that of a composite earth, consisting of a core of incompassages were cited from Philostorgius Ludolphus, Jean de pressible material and of a crust which may be compressible Thévenot, and other writers.-A series of spirit-specimens or incompressible.-On the lateral vibration of bars of of fishes from Lake Chad and the Chari River, collected uniform and varying sectional-area : J. Morrow. Lord and presented to the British Museum by Captain G. B. Rayleigh has given a method by which the approximate Gosling : G. A. Boulenger.-Exhibition of hybrid ducks period of vibration of a rod can be calculated without the bred at Cambridge: J. L. Bonhote. The crosses exhibited use of transcendental equations. The question has recently dealt chiefly with four species, of which the following were been further discussed by Mr. Garrett and Dr. Chree. The shown :--Anas boschas x A. poecilorhyncha, Anas boschas x object of the paper is to show that, by assuming a type A. poecilorhyncha x Dafila acuta, Anas boschas x A. poecilo- of vibration consistent with the conditions obtaining at the rhyncha x 4. superciliosa, Anas boschas x A, poecilorhyncha ends of the bar, the period can be obtained approximately in a simple manner, and that by a process of continuous taxial equivalents of the beds which immediately succeed the approximation the period and the type of the vibration may Carboniferous Limestone in the west of Ireland: Dr. Wheel. be determined, in a large number of cases, with great ton Hind. The counties of Clare and Limerick contain the accuracy.

Carboniserous sequence of the west of Ireland in the form

of a basin, the western side of which has been cut off by the Royal Meteorological Society, March 15.- Mr. Richard

sea, and consequently the geological structure is well seen Bentley, president, in the chair.—The growth of instru- in the line of cliffs from Black Head, co. Clare, to Ballymental meteorology: President. After briefly touching bunion, co. Kerry. In the north of Clare the beds dip on the historic and non-instrumental era of meteorology, gradually at 5°, and there are few or no faults. In the south reference was made to the seven great weapons of meteor- of the county and in co. Limerick there have been stronger ology-the thermometer, and of later years the heliograph, earth movements, and faulting is more frequent. The for temperature, the hygrometer and rain-gauge for moisture, sequence shows Coal-measures (Foynes coalfield), olive the barometer for pressure, and the anemometer and kite grits, flags and sandy shales, black shales with bullions, for the study of the upper air-and of the great foundation Carboniferous Limestone without shales or detrital beds. The of instrumental meteorology laid by Galileo, Torricelli, Wren whole series is conformable and fossiliferous. The Carand Hooke. The president, in dwelling upon our indebted- boniferous Limestone is characterised by the same fossils ness to Italy in science (as well as in art) from Galileo to as occur in the Carboniferous Limestone and Yoredale Marconi, pointed out that the theory of rainfall was

rocks of England, and at the top of this series is a great correctly enunciated as early as the beginning of th faunal change. The black shales with bullions, which overlie fourteenth century by Dante. He also dwelt on the great the Carboniferous Limestone, contain Posidoniella laevis, P. services rendered to the community by meteorologists, minor, Posidonomya membranacea, Pterino pecten papylargely by volunteers at their own expense, and referred to raceus, Glyphioceras diadema, G. spirale, G. davisi, G. rethe close observation kept by rain-gauges on the steadily ticulatum, Dimorphoceras gilbertsoni, G. descrepans, Nomisdiminishing water supply of the country, by anemometers

moceras spirorbis, and many others which characterise the protecting the traffic over some of our lofty and more ex- Pendleside series and the Lower Culm of England. The posed railway viaducts, by the use of the barometer for

marine bands intercalated in the olive grit and flag series, storm warnings and for the safety of miners in our pits, and the shales, recall the marine bands in the Millstone Grits. by the heliograph with relation to the ripening of fruits Hence it is interesting to find the same faunal sequence in and crops, and regretted how much of the immense mass the west of Ireland as exists in the midlands of England, of information daily accumulating had still to be analysed and it is erroneous to classify the beds which succeed the and put to use. It was disappointing to find in so wealthy Carboniferous Limestone in the west of Ireland as either a country as this, and where the results could not fail to Yoredales or Coal-measures, but they are the homotaxial be of the greatest practical utility to the nation, that the

equivalents of the Pendleside series and Millstone Grits. means of digestion of this vast data are so meagre, and the aid given by the Government is so slender as to be a

PARIS. constant source of reproach when compared with the large provision made for the same purpose in other countries for Academy of Sciences, March 13.-M. Troost in the chair. their own benefit.

--On surfaces applicable to the paraboloid of revoluDUBLIN.

tion : Gaston Darboux.-On the laws of sliding friction

Paul Painlevé. A discussion and extension of a paper Royal Dublin Society, February 21.-Dr. W. E. Adeney on the same subject by M. Lecornu. On the pressures in the chair.1) On the transmissibility of tuberculosis of developed at each instant in a closed vessel by colloidal the monkey to the ox and goat; (2) on the use of tuberculin powders of different forms: R. Liouville. The work of in the detection of tuberculosis : Prof. A. E. Mettam. M. Vieille on the explosion of gun-cotton powders in a closed (1) The tuberculous material was obtained from a drill vessel led him to conclude that the speed of combustion is inonkey. After passage through guinea-pigs, emulsions of proportional to a power of the pressure, about 2/3. On the organs of the latter were inoculated into a bull and into account of the difficulty introduced into ballistic calculations, a goat. Both animals have been infected with tuberculosis, it is usual to consider the speed of combustion as prothough free from the disease prior to injection, local lesions portional to the pressure. , An investigation is given showhaving been established and reaction to tuberculin being ing the accuracy of Vieille's exponent, and indicating where pronounced. (2) Experiments were carried out with the further experimental work is required.-On the explosive object of determining if an increased dose of tuberculin wave : E. Jouguet. The numerical data given in a prewould reveal tuberculosis in an animal which had already vious note were calculated on the assumption that the a short time previously received a dose of tuberculin, and combustion was total in the explosive wave, and that the if any immunity to tuberculin was established as to how long dissociation could be neglected. In the present paper the it lasted. It was shown, as Vallée maintains, that a double dissociation is taken into account, the formula of Gibbs dose of tuberculin would reveal tuberculosis even if the being adopted. Figures are given for mixtures of oxygen animal had received a prior dose a few days before, and with acetylene, cyanogen, and methane, and it is shown that that the immunity to an ordinary dose was evident for ten the dissociation may be considerable without seriously affectdays to a fortnight after injection.-Secondary radiation and ing the velocity of the explosive wave.--On the emptying of atomic structure : Prof. J. A. McClelland. Every substance systems of reservoirs : Ed. Maillet.—On the dangers of gives off a secondary radiation of ß particles when acted upon atmospheric electricity for balloons and the means of by the B rays of radium. The intensity of this secondary remedying them: A. Breydel.-On halation in photoradiation, in the case of elementary substances, depends on graphs : Adrien Guébhard.—On the atomic weights of the atomic weight; the greater the atomic weight the hydrogen and nitrogen, and on the precision attained in greater is the secondary radiation. This very general law their determination : A. Leduc. The value obtained by the has been found to hold true for all the elements tested, which author for the atomic weight of nitrogen from his density were twenty-one in number. The paper further discusses measurements was 14.005, but the figure still adopted by the this result from the point of view that all atoms are groups | International Committee on Atomic Weights is 14.04. It is of similar electrons.

pointed out that the lower number is confirmed by the

recent experiments of Guye and Bogdan, and Jaquerod and Royal Irish Academy, February 27:---Prof. R. Atkinsor, Bogdan.-On dextrorotatory lactic acid : E. Jungfleisch president, in the chair.-A list of the Irish jelly-fishes, corals, and M. Godchot. The preparation of d-lactic acid in a and sea-anemones: being a report from the R.I.A. fauna pure state from its salts is complicated by the tendency to and flora committee : Jane Stephens. This is a catalogue pass over into the inactive acid and by the formation of of all the species of Coelenterata hitherto recorded for the lactyl-lactic acid. The precautions necessary to avoid both coast of Ireland. The list, containing about 250 species, these changes are given in detail, and the properties of the includes the fresh-water hydroids. In a prefatory note a pure acid described.—The action of magnesium amalgam short account of the Irish Calenterates is given; there is upon dimethylketone: F. Couturier and L. Meunier. also a bibliography of the papers (which date back to the The chief product of the reaction is pinacone. By the dry year 1755) dealing with the subject.-Notes on the homo- distillation of the magnesium compound there is produced acetone, isopropyl alcohol, pinacoline (the principal pro

SATURDAY, MARCH 25. duct), and mesityl oxide. The yield of pinacoline is 21 Royal INSTITUTION , at 3.-Electrical Properties of Radio-active Sebper cent., and this forms the most rapid and advantageous stances : Prof. J. J. Thomson, F.R.S. method of preparing this substance.-On oxyethylcrotonic acid and ethylerythric acid : M. Lespieau.-On a method

MONDAY, MARCH 27. for the volumetric estimation of hydroxylamine : L. J. Society of Arts, at 8.-Telephone Exchanges: H. L. Webb. Simon. The method is based upon the conversion of the ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL Society, at 8. 33.- Liberia : Sir Harry Johnston, hydroxylamine salt into the oxalate by the addition of G.C.M.G., K.C. B. sodium oxalate, and titration in neutral solution by potas- INSTITUTE OF ACTUARIES, at 5.- Bonuses in Model Office Valuations and sium permanganate. The influence of dilution and of excess

their Relations to Reserves : Dr. James Buchanan. of the sodium oxalate has been studied.—The glycerophos

TUESDAY, MARCH 28. phates of piperazine : A. Astruc. A description of the preparation of the acid glycerophosphate of piperazine, and

INSTITUTION OF Civil ENGINEERS, at 8.-Coolgardie Water-Supply

C. S. R. Palmer. a method for its estimation based on the use of two indicators, phenol-phthalein and methyl orange.-On the ex

ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 5.-Vibration Problems in Engineering : Pro

W. E. Dalby. perimental bases of the reticular hypothesis : G. Friedel.

Society of Arts. at 4:30.- The Manufactures of Greater Britain-The requirements of the tobacco plant in fertilising Australasia : The Hon. W. H. James. materials : A. Ch. Girard and E. Rousseaux. The average amounts of lime, potassium, phosphoric acid and

WEDNESDAY, MARCH 29. nitrogen required per 1000 kilograms of dried leaves are Society of Arts, at 8.—British Woodlands : Sir Herbert Marvell, Bar given.—The genesis of the gametes and anisogamy in M.P. Monocystis : Louis Brasil.-On the Alpheidæ of the Lac

THURSDAY, MARCH 30. cadive and Maldive Islands : H. Coutière.—Sterility and Royal Society, at 4.30.--Probabie Papers : On the Observations of Suatu alopecy in guinea-pigs previously submitted to the influence

made in some British Stone Circles (Preliminary Note): Sir Norman

Lockyer, K.C. B., F.R.S.-On the Distribution of Velocity in a Viscoes of ovarian extracts of the frog : Gustave Loisel. The Fluid over the Cross-section of a Pipe, and on the Action at the Crite a ovarian extracts of the frog contain a poison which acts Velocity : J. Morrow.–The Direct Synthesis of Ammonia : Dr. EP by causing the atrophy of a certain number of ovules. Perman.-Tbe Determination of Vapour Pressure by Air Bubbling : D Other effects of the poison are noted.—On the antidote

E P. Perman and J. H. Davies. ---Note on Fluorescence and Absorption

J. B. Burke.- The Determination of the Specific Heat of Superheate to nicotine : C. Zalackas. Experiments on rabbits and Steam by Throttling and other Experiments : A. H. Peake guinea-pigs show that strychnine has not the effects as INSTITUTION OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS, at 8. an antidote to nicotine usually attributed to it. The effects of eserine are more favourable, and an extract of Nastur

FRIDAY, MARCH 31. tium officinale led to still better results, the effects of a Royal INSTITUTION, at 9.-The Scientific Study of Dialects Prof. } mortal dose of nicotine being entirely removed by the Wright. injection of the latter substance.--On the lowering of the

SATURDAY, APRIL 1. arterial pressure below the normal by d'Arsonvalisation : A. Moutier and A. Challamel. In certain cases the use of

ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 3.—Sone Controverted Questions of Optock

Lord Rayleigh. high frequency, high tension currents leads to a lowering of the blood pressure under the normal. It is therefore necessary to measure this pressure with great care when d'Arsonvalisation is being used therapeutically.--A modi

CONTENTS.

PAGE fication of the spectrum of methæmoglobin under the action of sodium fuoride : J. Ville and E. Derrien.-On The Kalahari Desert. By G. W. L.

481 the Middle Eocene deposits in Senegal : J. Chautard. Animal Photography. By R. L.

453 On the phenomena of the deviation of water courses dating a Popular Star Atlas. By W. J. S. L. from the seventeenth, eighteenth, and the commencement of the nineteenth centuries, proved my maps : E. Fournier.

A Contribution to Museum History . In a series of five maps of a valley near Lons-le-Saunier, Science and Metaphysics . .

483 dated 1658, 1748, 1790, 1841, and the present day, the various changes undergone by the water courses can be Our Book Shelf :traced.—The results of a year's study of the electrical Watts: “Index of Spectra. (Appendix 0.)” conductivity of the water of the Rhone at Lyons : M. Chanoz. The water supply of Lyons, obtained from the

Mottez: “La Matière, l'Éther et les Forces physiques" 280 Rhone, contains mineral matter in relatively constant Styan : "The Uses and Wonders of Plant-hair" . . 48 amounts throughout the year, as indicated by the freezing Letter to the Editor :point and electrical conductivity.

The Planet Fortuna.-Spencer Pickering, F.R.S. 48

State Aid for Higher Education . .
DIARY OF SOCIETIES.

Cave Hunting. (Illustrated.).

Fijian Folk-tales. (Illustraled.)
THURSDAY, MARCH 23.
Royal Society, at 4.30.- Bakerian Lecture: The_Reception and

Notes
Utilisation of Energy by the Green Leaf : Dr. Horace T. Brown, F R.S. | Our Astronomical Column:-
INSTITUTION OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS, at 8.-Report of Experiments

carried out at the National Physical Laboratory: On the Effect of Heat The Alternating Variability of Martian Canals
on the Electrical and Mechanical Properties of Dielectrics, and on the
Temperature Distribution in the Interior of Field Coils : E. H. Rayner. Discovery of Jupiter's Sixth Satellite .
-Discussion: On Temperature Curves and the Rating of Electrical
Machinery: R. Goldschmidt.

Forthcoming Oppositions of Mars .
ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 5.-The Reasonableness of Architecture: Thomas Variable Radial Velocity of Sirius . .
G. Jackson.
FRIDAY, MARCH 24.

Constant Errors in Meridian Observations
ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 9.-A Pertinacious Current: Sir Oliver Lodge, The National Physical Laboratory .

F.R.S. PHYSICAL SOCIETY, at 5.-Note on the Voltage Ratios of an Inverted Fungi. By Prof. H. Marshall Ward, F.R.S. Rotary Converter: W. C. Clinton - On the Flux of Light from the Trypanosomiasis and Experimental Medicine. Electric Arc with varying Power Supply : G. B. Dyke - The Application of the Cymoneter and the Determination of the Coefficient of Coupling (Illustrated.) By Prof. R. T. Hewlett of Oscillation Transformers : Prof. J. A. Fleming, F.R.S.-Exhibition of Cymometers and other Instruments.

University and Educational Intelligence
Institution of Civil. Engineers, at 8.- The Wanki to Victoria Falls Societies and Academies. (Illustrated.).

Section ; Victoria Falls Railway : C. T. Gardner.- Design of a Double-
Line Plate-Girder Railway-Bridge : H. S. Coppock.

Diary of Societies

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