« PreviousContinue »
stain from any generalisations, it is obvious that the notion of About twenty-five years ago Director Wild, of the Central the rotatory power of saline solutions being independent of the Physical Observatory at St. Petersburg, established the first particular metal present in the salt is altogether untenable. normal barometer of the modern form; and as much as twenty
PERCY F. FRANKLAND. years ago he claimed to have obtained practically normal readUniversity College, Dundee, March 11.
ings. Moreover, he urged that the transfer of these normal
readings from place to place by means of portable barometers The notice referred to by Prof. Percy F. Frankland was was impossible within the desired limits of accuracy, and that written, and the proof returned to the printer, before the end each country ought to have its own thoroughly investigated of last year. Since then two researches have been published normal barometer. This last has been proved by the results -by Purdie and Walker, and by Frankland and Appleyard obtained by various investigators; and now Prof. Wild offers in which facts are adduced, apparently irreconcilable with the proof of the accuracy of his normal barometer in the paper Guye's theory. Had these facts been at my disposal I should just referred to, which bears the title “Die normal-barometer doubtless have expressed myself more guardedly.
des Physikalischen Central Observatoriums zu St. Petersburg." Prof. Frankland says : “ As far as I am aware, there is not This paper was presented to the Academy of Sciences on a single instance of an asymmetric carbon atom attached to November 4, 1892, and in it Wild gives the results of the interfour groups qualitatively distinct, being found optically inactive comparison of three local normal barometers. in consequence of two of those groups being quantitatively
Normal barometer No. I. was mounted at St. Petersburg in equal in mass ;” and he complains that I have hardly empha 1870, and was fully described in Band iii, of the Repert. f. sised this sufficiently. My reason was, that I was not altogether Meteor. convinced of the fact, as may be seen from the following A second normal barometer was mounted at Pawlowsk (about passage, which I transcribe, and which originally formed a twenty miles from St. Petersburg) in 1887, and a third normal footnote to the notice in question :
was mounted at St. Petersburg in 1891, and is known as normal “ The present reviewer ventures to suggest that cases such No. II. as are sought by Guye are to be found in those compounds in In 1887 and 1888 Wild found that the St. Petersburg normal which two of the four different groups attached to an asymmetric I. and the Pawlowsk normal did not differ by more than o'r carbon atom are themselves asymmetric carbon atoms of equal mm. and opposite enantiomorphism. Such compounds would exist In 1892 the St. Petersburg normals I. and II. were found in two distinct forms; but as the two opposite enantiomorphic to agree within the limit of error of observation (less than groups would be of equal mass and would be situated at equal o'o mm.). distances from the central asymmetric carbon atom to which In 1892 the St. Petersburg Normal II. was dismounted, they are attached (inasmuch as the two opposite enantiomorphic taken to Pawlowsk, and there compared with the Pawlowsk modifications of a compound always have the same molecular normal, and the two were found to differ by only o‘or or 0.02 volume), the conditions necessary for optical inactivity according mm. ; that is '004 or '008 inch. It must be added that these to Guye's theory would be fulfilled, and neither of the two forms comparisons have all been checked by means of comparisons ought to cause rotation of the polarised ray. Such a case has
with portable barometers of the highest class. already been observed in the two inactive, non-racemic trihy
The paper by Prof. Wild is accompanied by illustrations of droxyglutaric acids described by Emil Fischer (Ber, der deutsch.
these various normal barometers. The St. Petersburg normal chem. Ges. 24, p. 4214), although it does not appear to have
has recently undergone some alterations, and these are also fully been hitherto interpreted from this point of view."
described. Altogether this is perhaps the most important con. I afterwards suppressed this footnote, partly because it seemed
tribution to the subject that has appeared since Prof. Wild's to me out of place in such a notice, and partly because the | famous memoir of 1873 ; for we can now rest assured that optical activity of the two trihydroxyglutaric acids could be farther refinement is not required by any practical demands. accounted for in another way : namely, by the fact that, as It seems to me that now that we are sure of the accuracy of pointed out by E. Fischer, the mirror images of their molecules Wild's normal, it is more necessary than ever that we should are congruent with the molecules themselves. But the passage
know with greater certainty its relation to the principal standards will show why I was indisposed to enter a proved negative of Europe. I desire, therefore, to propose a plan by which a against Guye's theory.
series of comparisons can be carried out for a few places at a As regards the charge of “endorsing special pleading” in
very slight expense, and with as much accuracy as portable the interests of the electrolytic theory of Arrhenius by sup instruments will permit. In 1883 it became my duty to transport pressing the fact that tartar emetic has, in solution, a different to America, from Hamburg three of the Wild-Fuess portable rotation from the other metallic tartrates, I may say at once barometers of the highest grade ; and it was of great importance that I was ignorant of this fact. I am not a specialist on the to take every possible precaution against their being injured or subject of the optical properties of organic compounds, and I their condition altered in any way so as to affect their readings. merely summarised, doubtless uncritically, the account of Oude- | I devised a mounting on shipboard which was very satisfactory, mans' law given in van't Hoff's book. Indeed, the brief
and gave me no cause for uneasiness regarding the barometers. notice, as its wording everywhere indicated, was a summary even in stormy weather. So many barometers are sent out from rather than a criticism
England to almost every country that I strongly urge the use of I take this opportunity of rectifying an omission. At the
a similar arrangement in all cases where it is desirable to retain time of writing the notice I was not aware that Prof. Crum
an assigned barometer correction. Brown had, independently of M. Guye, put forward, in the
The accompanying sketch shows my manner of mounting Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, views on the
the barometers. Two small strips of wood, AA, are influence of the various substituting radicles in modifying the screwed to the woodwork running lengthwise of the vessel. optical rotation of organic compounds.
F. R. JAPP.
They are placed about two feet apart, and are inclined at an University of Aberdeen, March 18.
angle of perhaps 45°. Small leather straps, say 15 inches long, are fastened to these strips by single screws as shown at BB.
A rather soft stuffed flat cushion or pillow is now placed against Standard Barometry.
the woodwork (wall) as shown at C. The box containing the The question of absolute accuracy in barometer readings is one barometer is now pressed against the cushion and the two exof great importance to meteorologists; but there has been so tremities are placed within the grasp of the straps BB. These much uncertainty shown by the accumulated facts relating to the last are buckled and drawn tight enough to hold the barometer subject, that I think that no one who has carefully studied the box firmly against the cushion C. The barometer is thus held matter has felt fully satisfied that strictly comparable inter in such a manner that no ordinary jarring can cause any damage national standards had been obtained. An uncertainty of at to it, as there is no direct contact with a rigid surface, since the least o'i mm. was indicated by the various international com- pillow prevents it from touching the wooden strips, and the soft parisons of normal barometers which have been carefully made yielding straps have a spring-like effect. and discussed during the past ten years. I think that at last a The lower part of the sketch shows the barometer box DD in definite conclusion has been reached, and that the very recent position, with the barometer shown within it. Of course the results published in paper No. 4, Band xvi. of the Reper. cistern is held uppermost. On account of the jarring motion of torium für Meteorologie will be accepted as proving that at St. the ship's screw in rough weather, it is desirable to locate the Petersburg at least normal readings are obtained.
barometers well amidship, and also have the cistern of the baro. meter directed towards the stern. Barometers can be placed in instruments to Washington for comparison with the normal this manner on ship board by the maker, and can be left to there, and then return them to New York and put them on ship themselves for any length of time. If the person to whom they board to be returned to London. are onsigned is notified of their subsequent arrival at port, he The standard barometers of Australia, India, Brazil, and other can take them from their hangings on the ship in the best pos. countries accessible by sea can be reached from London (or sible condition. Of course this presupposes an arrangement Hamburg) in the same way, and the comparison instruments with the officers of the vessel, such that the instruments shall be can be returned to their starting point for additional verification. let entirely alone from the time they are mounted by the con My own experience in the transportation of barometers assures signor until they are received by the consignee.
me that ship captains would gladly give their hearty co-operation I think this method of carrying instruments can be very use to a work of this kind, and there would be no charges for carryfully applied in improving our knowledge of the relation of ing the instruments even half round the world and back again. international barometric standards, and at a minimum expense ; In offering this suggestion it is not necessary for me to give and I will give a brief outline of a convenient way for accom- the details for the complete organisation of such a scheme ; bat plishing it. The Deutsche Seewarte at Hamburg, and the Kew it may be remarked that if it should be undertaken, the persona! Observatory at Richmond (through the London Meteorological experience of those who have been over the ground should be Office), are in the best positions for supervising this work, and I utilised in making plans. A single instance will serve to show venture to express the hope that the matter will be seriously why this is advisable. Some years ago I carried two barometers considered.
from Hamburg to London by sea. I took the German line of I will outline the work when carried on from London.
steamers and found myself anchored in the middle of the Thames, Let two barometers of the best construction, say an Adie and bad to get ashore as best I could. I greatly feared that I Fortin and a Wild-Fuess control barometer, be compared with should never get the barometers ashore in a whole condition, the Kew normal during a period of a week or more, or long as there was necessitated a great deal of scrambling over lighters, enough to experience considerable variation in the barometer &c., and embarkation in an unsteady row boat in order to makt
a landing. Had I taken the English steamer, all this worry would have been saved. Other similar instances occurred which could have been avoided by one personally familiar with the routes to be travelled.
FRANK WALDO. Princeton, New Jersey, February 20.
Motion of a Solid Body in a Viscous Liquid. THERE is perhaps no branch of mathematical pbysics which has made greater progress during the last thirty-five years than hydrodynamics. During this period numerous important investigations have been published upon the motion of solid bodies in a frictionless liquid, upon the theory of discontinuous molion, upon the theory of vortex motion and vortex rings upon the motion of a liquid ellipsoid under the influence of its own attraction, and upon waves and tides. These investigations constitute an enormous increase in the knowledge possessed by the present generation compared with that of its predecessors ; they have to a considerable extent exhausted the field of research in the theory of the motion of frictionless liquids ; but notwithstanding the importance of the results, the elegance of the methods by which many of them have been obtained, and the skill by which the mathematical difficulties have been surmounted, all the investigations referred to possess the defect of not accurately representing the motion of liquids as they occur in nature.
The reason of this discrepancy between theory and observatiot is that the ideal substance, which is called a frictionless liquid, has no actual existence, for all liquids which occur in nature are viscous. The viscosity of the mobile liquids, such as water,
alcohol, &c., is a small quantity, being in thecase of water equal height. Then let the two barometers be mounted on one of the to a tangential stress of about '014 dynes per square centimetre ; London Hamburg steamships, in the manner which I have whilst in the case of the sticky and greasy liquids, such as treacle described, and sent to Hamburg, where an employee of the and oil, it is much greater. The viscosity of olive oil is about Deutsche Seewarte could be despatched to take down the instru- 3'25 dynes per square centimetre, and is therefore about 232 ments and carry them to the Seewarte for comparison with the | times as great as that of water. normal barometer, Then the barometers could be taken by a The mathematical theory of the motion of viscous liquids was messenger to Lübeck, at an expense of a few shillings, and elaborated as long ago as 1845 by Sir G. Stokes, in a paper in mounted on a St. Petersburg steamer, which would carry them which he showed that the effect of viscosity might be represented almost to the door of the Central Physical Observatory, where by certain additional terms in the equations of motion of 2 they could be again taken in charge by a meteorologist, com. | frictionless liquid, which contain as a factor a new physical pared for a few days, and then again be mounted on another quantity called the viscosity. In a subsequent paper, published steamer bound for one of the Scandinavian ports where there is in 1850, be applied the above theory to calculate the diminution a standard barometer, and finally returned to London by one of the amplitude of the small oscillations of a sphere surrounded of the numerous regular steamships. At an expense of a couple | by water; and by means of experiments in which this quantity of pounds the barometer could be sent from St. Petersburg (or was observed, he calculated the numerical value of the viscosity Scandinavia) back to Hamburg via Stettin and Berlin ; thus of water, and found that it was in close agreement with the allowing Berlin to enter into the series. The barometers would value found by Poiseulle from experiments on the flow of liquids probably have to be sent by a messenger from Berlin to Ham- | through capillary tubes. An investigation of a similar character burg, thus entailing the just mentioned expense. A second was undertaken by von Helmholtz and Piotrowski about 1863. comparison at Hamburg would be desirable, and then the in which the sphere was suspended by a torsion fibre, and made barometers could be returned to London by sea, and again com- to perform sinall torsional oscillations about a diameter. pared at Kew.
Almost all calculations relating to small oscillations proceed Similarly, barometers could be sent to New York for comparison upon the basis that the squares and products of quantities, upoo with the sub-standard, by Adie, at the Maritime Exchange ; | which the disturbed motion depends, may be neglected. This is although probably the United States Weather Bureau would troduces a great simplification into the work, and enables a variety assume the expense of the three pounds necessary to carry the of problems, which would otherwise be exceedingly intractable be solved by fairly simple methods. There is, however, motion is not symmetrical with respect to an axis, it cannot be other class of problems of great practical importance, in which expressed in terms of y; but if the velocities of the liquid can is not allowable to neglect these quadratic terms, and towards be found from the hydrodynamical equations, the components of e solution of such problems theory has as yet made little the linear and angular momenta of the liquid can be calculated, ogress
and by applying the principle of momentum to the compound When a sphere is constrained to move along a horizontal system composed of the solid and the surrounding liquid, the aight line, but is otherwise free, it is well known that if the equations of motion of the former can be obtained. Since the rrounding liquid is supposed to be frictionless, its only effect momentum of the system is obviously a function of the six coto increase the inertia of the sphere by half the mass of the ordinates of the solid, this principle furnishes a sufficient number aid displaced. The sphere accordingly requires a larger of equations for the determination of the motion. palsive force to start it than if the liquid were absent, but When there is more than one solid, the principle of momentum jen once started it continues to move with its velocity of pro. is insufficient to determine the motion ; but if the velocities of tion. But when the sphere is surrounded by an actual the liquid in the neighbourhood of each solid could be found, aid, its velocity gradually diminishes until it ultimately comes the force and couple constituents of the resistance could be rest; and this fact shows very forcibly the necessity of taking calculated, and the equations of motion of each solid written . viscosity of the liquid into account in problems of this cha- down. Lagrange's equations in their ordinary form cannot be ter. I obtained a few years ago a mathematical solution, employed, as viscous motion involves a conversion of energy ich shows that this effect must necessarily be produced by a into heat; but problems which can be solved by an indirect cons liquid, but the solution is an imperfect one, as mathe- method can usually be solved by a direct one, and I feel conitical difficulties compelled me to disregard the quadratic fident that equations analogous to Lagrange's equations exist, ms.
by means of which the motion of a number of solids in a viscous It is always a great advantage when the solution of a mathe- liquid can be found without going through the above-mentioned rical problem can be made to depend upon a single function process. A form of Lagrange's equations has already been disich satisfies a partial differential equation and certain boundary covered, which is applicable when the viscous forces depend aditions. This is always the case when a solid of revolution upon a dissipation function which is expressible as a homogeneous ives along its axis in a viscous liquid which is initially at rest, quadratic function of the velocities; and the circumstance that has an independent motion which is symmetrical with respect a dissipation function also exists in the hydrodynamical theory, the axis. In this particular class of problems, the motion can although it is expressed in a different form, furnishes additional expressed by means of Stokes's current function in the follow grounds for believing in the existence of equations of this chamanner :--Let , be measured along, and go perpendicularly racter. The discovery of such equations would constitute an he fixed straight line with which the axis coincides during important advance in the theory of viscous liquids. motion ; let w and u be the velocities of the liquid in these
A. B. BASSET. ections; then:
SCIENCE IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS AND
IN THE SCIENTIFIC BRANCHES OF THE
On Friday last Mr. Campbell Bannerman received a
deputation on this subject in his room in the House
of Commons. There were present Sir Henry Roscoe, v is the kinematic coefficient of viscosity.
the Head Master of Rugby School, the Principal of o far as I am aware, no serious attempt has been made to Cheltenham College, the Head Master of Clifton College, un a solution of this equation in a suitable form, even when Sir B. Samuelson, Prof. Jelf, and Mr. Shenstone. Lord
solid is a sphere. The equation is well worthy of the Playfair, Sir John Lubbock, and Sir Henry Howorth otive consideration of mathematicians; and although it is an
would also have been present, but they were prevented by actable one, it must be recollected that a general solution is required, but only a particular one which is suitable in the
other engagements. The following is a brief account of of a sphere. It will be quite time enough to consider the
the proceedings :ibility of obtaining solutions of a more general character, Sir Henry Roscoe, in introducing the deputation, said that n the appropriate one in the case of a sphere has been dis he had introduced a deputation on this subject to Mr. Stanhope Fred. It is also important to recollect that in most problems about five years ago, and that if the suggestions then made had ih are of practical interest, v is a small quantity (about '014 been adopted the present deputation would not have been "G.S. units for water), and consequently an approximate necessary. After some remarks which showed the injustice of tion in which v is supposed to be small would meet the the present system to the more scientific lads, he pointed out ences of the case.
several methods by which this injustice might be removed. Then a solid body is moving through a liquid, one of the The Head Master of Rugby, Dr. Percival, expressed his dary conditions is that the normal velocity of the solid strong feeling of the importance of the subject alike to the I be equal to the component along the normal of the velocity service, the cadets, and the schools, and said he wished to see le liquid in contact with it. If the liquid is frictionless, this both modern languages and science duly encouraged; Ire lition is the only one which has to be satisfied ; but when thought they might both be made compulsory, as he believed iquid is viscous, a further question arises as to the law which that early education should rest on a wide basis, and that esses the effect of the tangential stress exerted by the liquid specialising should only be encouraged later. Alluding to the
the solid. When the motion is very slow (as in the case work in science done at the Royal Military Academy, Dr. problems relating to small oscillations) the experimental Percival mentioned that he knew of one cadet who, owing ence is in favour of the hypothesis of no slipping; but when to the absence of any higher teaching there at the earlier relocity is considerable, the experimental evidence is not so stages, was lately learning science which he, the cadet, was factory. The partial slipping which takes place under these well fitted to teach. umstances musi depend partly upon the nature of the liquid, The Principal of Cheltenham College, Mr. James, consessed partly upon that of the surface in contact with it; and the that his own interests and convictions on educational matters ential stress to which it gives rise is probably approximately were those of a linguist rather than those of a man of science ; ortional to the square of the relative velocity.
but practical experience showed him that the present system hen the motion is symmetrical with respect to an axis, told most unfairly against scientific boys who entered Woolwich ; stresses due to viscosity can be calculated as soon as the science was being gradually edged out. Many other head
or is koown, the resistance which the liquid exerts on masters of public schools felt with the deputation. He thought olid can be found, and theequation of motion written down | also that the present system tended to the disadvantage of the integrated. This process is, however, an exceedingly tedious smaller schools, where science was often exceedingly well ; but it can always be dispensed with in the case of a single taught. He hoped that in making any changes the authorities by employing the principle of momentum. When the would be carelui to consider the interests of linguistic boys, and would not add to the number of subjects taken up at entrance, | them, but to which at present they can only give a preus for boys were already overburdened in their preparation.
of their time. The Head Master of Clifton College, Mr. Glazebrook, said
By doing this the authorities of the Academy - , :X that this was a question on which the public schools had a strong
only advance the interests of the service, they will claim to be heard, since an increasing number of boys passed
avoid that discouragement of the more scientific 3.2 direct from them to Woolwich-the proportion last July being about four-fifths of all the candidates. But the discouragement
and of the teaching of science in schools which of science was not so serious to the great schools as to the
mittedly a result of the present system as a whole smaller and less expensive schools, where as a rule science is
In conclusion, we would urge strongly what was por well taught, but not German. He thought it undesirable that
out by Sir Henry Roscoe on Friday, that it is not a these latter should be debarred from competition. It was not scientific knowledge but scientific ability which is ver only by the assignment of marks that science was now dis and that it is only by giving due weight to science 2 couraged, but also by the system of instruction. Boys who entrance examination and afterwards that this a: went up to Woolwich tolerably proficient in chemistry were put secured. back to the elements, and at the end of their first year knew less than when they entered. Such boys were naturally inclined to complain that science at Woolwich was a farce, and to urge their friends at school to take up another subject which was
CLIMBING PLANTS. treated more seriously.
THIS forms the fourth part of A. F. W. Schacne Further remarks were made by Sir B. Samuelson, who
1 “Botanische Mittheilungen aus den Tropen, La especially advocated the encouragement of all types of boys from the public schools, by Prof. Jelf, and by Mr. Shenstone. State
is devoted to the description and illustration of ments were made by the Director-General of Military Education
various adaptations for climbing exhibited by and the Inspector-General of Fortifications ; the latter officer
Brazilian plants observed on the spot. Follos emphasised the importance of German and of electricity, and said Darwin, the author distinguishes four difierent size many cadets were markedly deficient in the latter subjects when of climbing plants, according to the manner in .. they left Woolwich. In concluding, Mr. Campbell-Bannerman they climb; but his four classes are not quite the su: expressed his obligation to the deputation, and his sense for the Darwin divided them into those having stems pot importance of the matter brought under his notice, which would twine spirally round a support; those which dim. have his most careful attention.
means of irritable organs; those which climb by z
of hooks; and those which climb by means of for It will be seen from this report that the position of Darwin's investigations, it will be remembered, cadets of scientific ability at the Royal Military Academy chiefly directed to the elucidation of the phenoor is, as we pointed out some time ago, far from satisfactory, exhibited by twiners, and such plants as climb os tre and that this view is now not only held by men of science of tendrils. Schenck treats in a general way of a!te. but also by many head masters and by distinguished classes of climbers ; and his work is more in the az.members of the military profession, who on this and on
of a text-book than an account of experimental resan other occasions recently have spoken clearly on the sub He divides climbing plants into Spreizklimmer, W.ject.
kletterer, Windepflanzen, and Rankenpfanzen. The main defects of the present system seem to be :
sponding nearly to the hook, root, twining, and le (1) That science and German, two subjects which ought climbers of Darwin and others. But the Spices to go hand in hand in the early education of officers of
mer include all climbing plants that neither triler the scientific branches, are at present brought into dis
possess either irritable climbing organs or clinging to tinct conflict; (2) that in effect so great a bonus is given
whether armed or unarmed. Thus the least organic to German in the course of work at the Royal Military
climbing plants are those having weak, slender, red Academy as to be likely very soon to drive science out stems and branches which grow up among other of the entrance examination, and to a corresponding
and rest upon them without any other means extent out of the public schools ; (3) that the standard
port ; whilst the most perfectly developed deur, of work of the cadets in science, and particularly in
plants are those provided with highly sensitive 0.27 electricity when they leave the Royal Military Academy,
| tendrils, such as the Cucurbitacea and the Pastois lower than it ought to be in very many cases.
It is difficult to find an exact English equivales Of these defects the last, which is doubtless largely
“Spreizklimmer," but "incumbent climbers the outcome of the first two, is probably the most import
employed to designate this class. Twiners remaine ant, and it will never be remedied so long as the authori- the sun as the hop (Humulus Lubulus). Or ages. ties cling to the idea that a sufficient knowledge of
sun, as the scarlet-runner bean (Phascolns : several branches of science can be given to the cadets,
but Schenck agrees with Darwin and other even when they are quite new to such studies, in the
that they are not sensible to contact. It is only the moderate amount of time that can be spared for them
classed as tendril-climbers that exhibit this proper during the comparatively brief course of work at the
and this irritability is developed both in caulons Royal Military Academy. That this idea is wrong we
phyllomes—that is in branches and in leares, more have pointed out again and again. If those who are
modified for the purpose. In England there responsible for the education of the cadets at Woolwich
three woody climbers, namely: the ivy, 2 route really desire that the cadets shall attain to a higher stan
the honeysuckle, a twiner; and Clematis will, dard in science, they must not only encourage the admis
stalk climber; but in Brazil, and in other sion of lads of scientific ability, but they must either set
countries, they are exceedingly numerous, and pres apart much more time to such work at the Academy, and
great variety of adaptations to this end. Dr. S give opportunities for, and more encouragement to,
however, does not confine himself to Brazilian advanced work on the part of those who take up the
He briefly reviews all the types that have come acle subject, and do well in it at the entrance examination ;
observation. Plants climbing by means of tende or, if the giving of more time to science at the Royal
table organs), conceived in the widest see Military Academy is impracticable, as is very possibly
classified according to the organs, es pats the case, they must so alter the conditions of the entrance
organs, by means of which they climbs examination as to secure that the cadets shall learn their
takes the leaf-climbers, which climb by me elementary chemistry and heat at school, and be able to devote their science work at Woolwich wholly to elec 1 "Beiträge zur Biologie und Anatomie de Liman in
Brasilien einheimischen Arten." Mit 7 Tafel tricity, which is technically of such great importance to
(Jena: Gustav Fischer, B92.)
sensitive revolving leaflets (Fumaria), by the petioles
NOTES. (Clematis and Tropæolum), by the tips of the leaves Tillandsia and Flagellaria). Then come the leaf-ten
HONOUR has been done lately to two British men of science dril climbers proper, such as Pisum sativum and Cobwa by the Academy of Sciences of the Institute of France. On scandens. But the almost peculiarly tropical branch- | March 6 Sir Joseph Lister was elected a Foreign Associate in climbers, plants climbing by means of modified caulomes succession to the late Sir Richard Owen, and on March 20 Sir branches or inflorescences), present the most singular | Henry Roscoe was elected a Correspondent in the section of forms. Dr. Schenck divides them into branch-climbers
chemistry in succession to the late M. Abria.
chemistry in succession to t proper, which have elongated naked or leafy revolving branches clasping the branches of other plants ; hook The Brazilian expedition, under charge of Mr. A. Taylor, climbers, which develop hook or claw-like supports ; for the observation of the solar eclipse has arrived safely at ** watch-spring” climbers and thread-climbers. The Ceara. grape vine and passion-flower are classed under the last. The climbing organs of the “watch-spring” type are very
The Liverpool Marine Biology Committee have recently curious. They are naked, attenuated branches, which appointed Mr. J. Henry Vanstone, from Prof. Howes' roll up in one plane, forming a loose elastic spiral, be- | Laboratory at the Royal College of Science, South Kensington, tween the coils of which the support is caught. The spirals as Resident Curator of their Biological Station at Port Erin usually thicken only at the point of contact, thereby in the Isle of Man. The important addition which has been effecting a firm hold of the support. Dr. Schenck does made to the station during the winter, viz. a two-storied tank not enter deeply into the anatomy of climbing organs,
and aquarium house, is now finished, and will be open for use though he states that differentiation of the tissues of sensitive organs only takes place after contact.
at Easter, when Prof. Brady, Mr. Thompson, Prof. Herdman,
The plates are all devoted to the illustration of the external
and several other biologists are going to Port Erin to work. morphology of climbing organs. A systematic list of
list of Nine investigators and students have already applied for genera containing climbing species is given, and there is accommodation at the station during April, and others are also a chapter on the geographical distribution of climb- coming at later periods during the summer, so there seems ing plants. W. BOTTING HEMSLEY. every prospect of the institution being well used this season.
In connection with the conversazione to be held at the Royal College of Surgeons of England on July 5, to celebrate the
jubilee of the Fellowship of the College, it has been decided, CLAPHAM JUNCTION AND PADDINGTON RAILWAY.
as this year is also the centenary of the death of John Hunter,
to organise an exhibition of pictures, MSS., books, furniture, THE statement that appeared in the press towards the &c., connected with the great surgeon. In addition to the
end of last week, that the promoters of this railway articles which are the property of the College of Surgeons, the had applied to the committee who rejected the bill for
exhibition will include other relics, the loan of which has been permission to bring the subject again before the House of Commons did not represent the fact. What really
kindly promised by the present possessors. The librarian of occurred may be gathered from the following extract
the College will be pleased to give further information to any from the Times of Saturday, the 25th inst. :
owner of Hunterian relics who may be willing to lend them for " It had been the intention of the promoters of the exhibition. Clapham and Paddington Railway Bill to ask the committee, presided over by Sir J. Kennaway, to grant per
A very successful conversazione was held by the students of mission to have the bill recommitted, in order to meet
the Royal College of Science in the South Kensington Museum he objections as to electric traction raised by the Royal / on Thursday, March 23. Mr. C. V. Boys concluded the College of Science and the City and Guilds Institute. | various entertainments by exhibiting Mr. Henry Dixon's photoAfter a private consultation with the chairman, it has graphs of spiders walking on water, Lord Rayleigh's and his been decided that the public application to this effect own photographs of bursting bubbles, and by showing his inteshould not be made until some arrangement has been resting experiments with soap bubbles. come to with the authorities of these institutions in the Exhibition Road, and until steps had been taken to find
The council of the City and Guilds Institute for the Advance. put whether they would agree to the substitution of cable ment of Technical Education have nominated the following as or electric traction on that portion of the line coming members of the Technical Educational Board of the London vithin the radius of the scientific colleges. ...."
County Council, viz. :-Mr. Herbert Saunders, Q.C., Si: Owen Even the preceding corrected statement rather repre
Roberts, and Dr. W. J. Russell, F.R.S. ents the aspect wbich the promoters would like the matter to assume than the strict truth. For as a matter THE Camera Club announces that the seventh annual Photoof fact it has been pointed out first that the passage graphic Conserence will be held in the theatre of the Society of of the electric locomotives and the train of iron- | Arts on Wednesday and Thursday, April 12 and 13, under the 'ramed carriages running nearly due north and south presidency of Captain W. de W. Abney, F.R.S. Papers will vithin some 40 feet of magnetometers would stop all!
feet of magnetometers would stop all be read by some of the leading students of photography, and vork, even if the motive power were a cable ; secondly,
all photographers are invited to take part in the conference. hat the vibration caused by the quick moving trains and y the slapping cable would be ruinous; and lastly, that | Some time ago the Egyptian Government appointed a como one but an over-sanguine company promoter would mission to examine the building in which the archaeological magine that an electric railway with a fragment worked collection is housed at Ghizeh. This commission has now y cable in the middle would be a lasting arrangement. finished its investigations, and, according to the Cairo correet but the bill pass, and within six months after the
spondent of the Times, its report shows the condition of the ailway was open an interesting collection of broken ables would be on exhibition in the Houses of Parlia
building to be even more dangerous than it was known to be. vent. It is amazing that the question of the shifting of
A fire would completely destroy the building in the course of a he route of the proposed railway a few hundred yards to
few hours. The Egyptian Government propose to have the he east or west of Exhibition Road seems to be altogether | Museum made fireproof at a probable cost of £90,000, but the eglected.
result is not expected to be satisfactory. A new building on a