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from the central one. If a line be drawn uniting the called “the cove"; and there are outlying stones—the centres of the extreme Circles, the centre of the “ quoit," and those in Middle Ham—which bear such middle ring is found to be 12 feet 6 inches to the relations to the circles as to suggest that they too west of it.

formed parts of some general scheme of construction. " These Circles have been greatly injured. The The “ quoit,” lying in an orchard by the roadside. largest consists of 9 erect and 5 prostrate stones; has nothing very impressive about its appearancea the north Circle has 6 erect and 6 prostrate, and a recumbent mass of greyish_sandstone; but it seems fragment of a seventh; and the south has 3 erect and to be a brick in the Stanton Drew building. By some 8 prostrate. In Dr. Borlase's time they were in a slightly better condition. A pen-and-ink sketch made by him, which is extant in one of Dr. Stukeley's volumes of original drawings, represents the middle Circle as consisting of 7 erect and 10 prostrate stones; the north of 10 erect and 6 prostrate; and the south of 3 erect and 9 prostrate. The

Heute Quoil Fave stone to the east of that marked C in the plan of the middle Circle is the highest, and is 5 feet 8 inches out of the ground, and appears to have been wantonly mutilated recently. Two of the prostrate stones of the north Circle are 6 feet 6 inches in length.

" About 17 feet south from the centre of the middle Circle there is a prostrate stone 4 feet long and 15 inches wide at one end. It may possibly have been of larger dimensions formerly, and been erected on the spot where it now lies, but as Dr. Borlase has omitted it in his sketch it is probably a displaced stone of the ring.

“If we allow, as before, average interval of 12 feet between the stones, there will have been

War Horse about 28 pillars in the north, 26 in the south, and 33 in the middle

Manor Hollse Circle. “ At a distance of 409 feet west

Sious wards from K in the middle Circle

Utda there are 2 stones, 7 feet apart, both inclined northwards. One is 4 feet u inches in height out of the ground, and overhangs its base 2

Stanton Drew feet 7 inches; the other is 5 feet 4 inches high, and overhangs 18

St. Mary's Church inches." 1

I next come to Stanton Drew.

I will begin by giving a short account of the stones which remain, abridged from the convenient pamphlet prepared for the British Association meeting at Bristol in 1898 by Prof. Lloyd Morgan.

The circles at Stanton Drew, though far less imposing than those of Avebury and Stonehenge, are thought to be more ancient than are the latter, for the rough-hewn uprights and plinths of Stonehenge bear the marks of a higher and presumably later stage of mechanical development. Taken as

Fig. 13 – The Circles and Avenues at Stanton Drew. Photograph of 25-inch Ordnance Map. a group:

giving approximate azimuths of sight-lines. the Somersetshire circles some respects more complex than their better known regarded as a sarsen block from Wiltshire, it is more rivals in Wiltshire. There are three circles, from two probably derived from the Old Red Sandstone of Nenof which“ avenues " proceed for a short distance in a dip. In any case it is not, geologically speaking, is more or less easterly direction; there is a shattered but situ; nor has it reached its present position by natural large dolmen--if we may so regard the set of stones agency. 1 "The Prehistoric Stone Monuments of the British Isles : Cornwall " By

With regard to two of the megalithic circles, at first William Collings Lukis, M.A., F.S.A., Rector of Wath, Yorkshire. P. 4. sight the constituent stones seem irregularly dotted

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in

380

answer

a

Dec. N.

Arcturus.

36°

1400 B.C.

Az.

800 B.C.

Az.

about the field; but as we approach them the unevenly assuming hills half a degree high, which roughly spaced stones group themselves.

compensate the refraction correction so that we may The material of which the greater number of the use sea-horizon values, we have the following derude blocks is composed is peculiar and worthy of clinations approximately :careful examination. It is a much altered rock con

The Hurlers. Lat. 50° 31' Stanton Drew. Lat. 51° 10' sisting, in most of the stones, of an extremely hard

Dec. N. 381°

Dec. N. 37° silicious breccia with angular fragments embedded in

361° a red or deep brown matrix, and with numerous cavi

37° ties which give it a rough slaggy appearance. Many

Here, then, we have declinations to work on, of these hollows are coated internally with a jasper- but declinations of what star? To endeavour to like material, the central cavity being lined with

this question I prepared diagram gleaming quartz-crystals.

showing the declination of the three brightest stars The majority of the stones were probably brought in the northern heavens, having approximately the from Harptree Ridge on Mendip, distant some 'six declinations in question for the period o to 2500 b.C. miles. Weathered blocks of Triassic breccia, showing The calculations for o to 2000 B.c. are taken from various stages of silicification, there lie on the surface; the tables published by the Astronomisches Geselland there probably lay the weathered monoliths which schaft,1 and have been completed from 2000 to 2500 have been transported to Stanton Drew. It is im- B.c. by Dr. Lockyer. portant to note that they were erected unhewn and un- Vega is ruled out as its declination is too high. touched by the tool. A few stones are of other material The remaining stars Capella and Arcturus may have -sandstone, like the “ quoit,” or oolite from Dundry. been observed so far as the declinations go. For

In the great circle, of the visible stones some retain time limits we have :their erect position, others are recumbent, several are

Capella. partially covered by accumulation of grass-grown soil.

381°
500 B.C.

1550 Bc. Others are completely buried, their position being re

1050 »

1150 , vealed in dry seasons by the withering of the grass

The interesting fact must be pointed out that about above them.

1000 B.C. the declination of the two stars was very To the east of this circle a short avenue leads nearly the same. out, there being three visible stones and one buried Now there is no question as to which of these block on the one hand, and two visible stones on the two stars we have to deal with, for I find by the use other. But one's attention is apt to be diverted from of a precessional globe that for about 1400 B.C. and these to the very large and massive megaliths of the 800 B.C. the warning stars were as follows for the small N.E. circle. This is composed of eight critical times of the

year,

i.e. May, August, weathered masses, one of which (if indeed it do not November, February. represent more than one), Prof. Lloyd Morgan tells us,

Pleiades rising is recumbent and shattered.

May

Pleiades rising From this circle, all the stones of which are of the silicious breccia, a short Nov. Capella setting

Aug. Arcturus rising N. 14° E. Sirius rising

Betelgeuse rising avenue of small stones also opens out eastwards.

Feb.

Capella rising N. 29° E. Capella rising N 21° E. The third or S.W. circle lies at some little distance

Dec. 34° N.

Dec. 37° N. from the others. The average size of the stones is smaller than in either of the other circles, and not Arcturus, and this being so, the approximate dates

It is quite clear, then, that we have to deal with all are composed of the same material.

of the use of the three circles at the Hurlers can be “ The Cove,” which has been variously, regarded derived. They are :as a dolmen, a druidical chair of state, and a shelter for sacrificial fire, is close to the church.

Southern circle aligning Arcturus over centre of central circle 1600 The dimensions and number of stones

Central

N. circle 1500 follow :

Northern

tumulus

1300 Great Circle, diameter 368 feet, 30 stones.

I have already pointed out that Mr. Penrose found N. E. 97 8

the warning star for May morning at the date of S.W. 145 ,

foundation of the Hecatompedon, 1495, B.C., to be We now pass from general descriptions of the

the group of the Pleiades. As the foundations of the circles to the azimuths of the sight lines already re

Hecatompedon were only built some few years before ferred to, so far as they can be determined from the

the stones of the central circle of the Hurlers were published Ordnance maps.

used, we ought to find traces of the observations of

We do; there is a To investigate them as completely as possible with the same May morning stars. out local observations in the first instance, I begged stone with amplitude E. 15° N., which, when aligned Colonel Johnston, R.E., C.B., the Director-General from the S. circle, would have pointed out the rising of the Ordnance Survey, to send me the 25-inch maps place of the Pleiades in 1300 B.C., that is, the date of the sites giving the exact azimuth of the side lines.

we have already found from the observations of This he obligingly did, and I have to express my

Arcturus. I regard this as an important confirmgreat indebtedness to him.

ation of the time of the use of the temple, all the more Of the various sight lines found, those to which

as the high situation of the circles, not generally I wish to direct attention in the first instance, and

dominated by higher levels for some miles, renders it which led me to the others, are approximately, read- probable that large corrections for hills will not be ing the azimuths to the nearest degree,

required to be made. Hurlers

There are alignments in connection with the N.

Stanton Drew Lat. 50° 31' N.

Lat si' 10' N.

circle which indicate the introduction of the solstitial S. circle to central Great circle to Quoit N. 17° E.

year, but these and some others may wait until local circle... N. 12° E. S.W. circle to great

observations have been made before more is said Central to N. circle N. 15° F. circle

N. 20° E. about them. N. circle to tumulus N. 19° E.

With regard to Stanton Drew, it is clear that we For the purposes of a preliminary inquiry in antici

are there also dealing with Arcturus. Mr. Dymond's pation of the necessary local observations with a Theodolite, for which I am making arrangements;

1 Dr. O. Danckworth, Vierteljahrschrift der Astronomisi hen Gesellschaft,

16 Jahrgang 1881, p. 9.

B.C.

are

as

12

Az.

Az.

B.C.

levels give an idea of the height of the hills, so with parative rapidity of their formation, as shown by the the Ordnance map azimuths, read to 1°, the dates fact that some of these isolated stacks of conof the use of the great and S.W. circles are approxi- glomerate are capped by boulder clay, and their mately as under :

capitals may here and there be seen to have retained

their covering of thick peaty soil.". Great Circle ...

1260

The photograph of the tower of Eccles Church, an S.W. Circle

1075 object made so familiar by Lyell's “Principles," is We seem, then, to have made a step in advance. the ist that was taken (in 1886), and the last that will More accurate readings of the Ordnance maps and be taken, for the tower itself was destroyed in 1895accurate determination of the heights of hills may Prof. Reynolds's photograph of the great Axmouth vary the above values slightly. But that is an un- landslip gives a good view of the "mighty chasm important detail if it can be shown that we have a which separated the foundering mass from the land.' new method of dating what went on in prehistoric The original describers of this were Buckland and Britain at the time when the Athenians were building Conybeare, and a water-colour copy by Ruskin of Mrs. the Hecatompedon.

Buckland's drawing still hangs in the University A great amount of local theodolite work has to be Museum at Oxford. Of queer forms the “ Rock and done, for while Mr. Lukis only referred to two out- Spindle," St. Andrews, Fifeshire, photographed by Mr. standing stones at the Hurlers, there are many more G. Bingley and described by Prof. Bonney, and "Lot's marked on the Ordnance map; there are also others Wife," Marsden, Durham, a “ breccia gash” transbesides the “ quoit” at Stanton Drew.

formed into a sea-stack, described by Prof. Lebour, are I am more rejoiced than I can say to know that this local work has already been begun under the best possible conditions. As it was impossible for me to leave London when the significance of the alignments was made out, I appealed to the authorities of University College, Bristol, and of the Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society for aid. The principal of the college, Prof. Lloyd' Morgan, together with Prof. Morrow and his engineering class, have already made observations at Stanton Drew, and Captain J. S. Henderson, of Falmouth, an accomplished surveyor, sent me last week from the Hurlers the angular heights along some of the alignments, the means of eight readings obtained with a 6-inch theodolite, both verniers and reversed telescopes being employed. Other students of science besides myself will, I am sure, feel their Fig. 1.-Keuper marl resting on terraced granite surface; Mountsorrel Quarry, Leicestershire. indebtedness for such opportune

Photographed by Prof. H. E. Armstrong, F.R.S. help. NORMAN LOCKYER.

among the quaintest; they would be good puzzles to

set a student in examination. The most novel subject BRITISH ASSOCIATION GEOLOGICAL is the wind-worn surface of granite disclosed beneath PHOTOGRAPHS.

the Keuper marl in the Mountsorrel quarry, one of the

several proofs discovered by Prof. Watts of the desert THE "HE geological photographs committee of the conditions which prevailed in these islands and else

British Association and its indefatigable secre- where during a part of the Trias period. We have tary, Prof. W. W. Watts, are to be congratulated selected this for reproduction. on the third issue, which completes the first series, of As this is the last issue of the first series it is usetheir admirable photographs. There are twenty-four fully accompanied by some introductory letterpress, photographs in this issue, all of great interest, showing which includes the names of the committee, a preface. much skill in technique, and considerable artistic power table of contents, and other information. We leara in the choice of the point of view from which the from the preface that the idea of forming a systematic objects were taken. They treat of a variety of sub. collection of geological photographs originated with jects, chiefly the action of wind and rain, frost and Mr. Osmond W. Jeffs in 1889; to carry it out a comice, and sea-waves, igneous intrusion, the character of mittee of the British Association was appointed in 1890. sedimentary rocks, and structures due to faulting and and Mr. Jeffs acted as secretary until 1896, by which folding.

time 1412 photographs had been contributed. In 1803 There are two good pictures of the remarkable rain- Prof. W. W. Watts became secretary, and by 1903 the eroded pillars of Old Red Conglomerate which occur at collection had grown to the magnificent total of 3754 Allt Dearg, on the Spey, Morayshire, and remind us It is housed in the Museum of Practical Geology, 28 of the similar forms which may be seen in much Jermyn-street, S.W. The series issued to subscribers younger deposits on the right side of the Brenner as and just completed consists of a selected number (72 we travel towards Italy. They were first figured by of these photographs, taken from negatives generously Sir Archibald Geikie, who provides a description to the lent by their

owners, and furnished with descriptions photographs, in which he directs attention to the com- | by many of the leading geologists of the day,

[graphic]

The success of the scheme is shown by the fact that and Sir W. Abney. All these gentlemen have served it has resulted in a considerable profit; of this one half as chairmen of the council, and the society owes them has been returned to the subscribers in the form of much. additional whole-plate photographs, and the other half Both institutions are financially strong. The London will provide funds for carrying on the work of the Institution possesses a site which is worth at least committee for at least four years. In a strictly business 150,00ol., besides a fund invested in consols of the undertaking it is to be presumed that a good slice of present value of 31,000l. Its income in 1903 was the profits would disappear in "wages of superintendo 3583l., and its expenditure was 36161. The Society of ence,” and subscribers may therefore regard their Arts has an annual income which last year exceeded additional photographs as a gift from Prof. Watts. 11,000l., a capital fund of about 20,0001., which has

accumulated from surplus income during the last twenty years, and trust funds amounting to nearly

15,000l. THE SOCIETY OF ARTS AND THE LONDON institution and the other to consent to an amalgama

What, then, are the inducements to the one INSTITUTION.

tion? It is not proposed that either should absorb the ON N Wednesday next a special meeting of proprietors other. The suggestion is amalgamation into a single

of the London Institution will be held to consider body for the promotion of science, art, and literature, a scheme for its amalgamation with the Society of and their practical applications, the members of each Arts. Founded in 1805 by merchants and bankers of corporation preserving all their present rights, and the City of London, given a charter two years later, and sharing in the government of the new institution and housed in its present imposing, if rather sombre, pre

in the direction of its future action. mises in 1819, the London Institution has done good The determining consideration with the Society of work in its day. The object of its founders was to Arts is that the amalgamation would give it a peramaintain, in what was then a central position, an ex- manent local building. The society does not own its tensive general library of reference, comprising works premises. They were built for it by the Brothers Adam of intrinsic value and utility in all languages; to pro in 1774, but the lease has run out, and it is now vide reading rooms for periodical publications and practically a tenancy at will. Moreover, the building interesting contemporaneous pamphlets; and to pro- is inadequate for the growing needs of the society, and mote the diffusion of knowledge by lectures and con- the funds at its disposal are not sufficient to enable it versazioni. But since the foundation of the institution to build for itself, whereas by amalgamation with the circumstances have greatly changed, and not to the London Institution, which would sell its Finsbury, preadvantage of the institution. In 1817, and for many mises, ample funds would be available. It is believed years afterwards, the City contained a large residential that the accommodation required could be got for a population, which for a long time past has been sum of 100,000l., and a suitable site found" east of gradually disappearing, until now the number of pro- Charing Cross and west of Chancery Lane.” If it prietors who use the institution as a centre of intellec- were decided to erect a building of sufficient size there tual culture is comparatively small, and is more likely are several other societies who would probably be preto grow smaller than to increase. In these circum-pared to join in the scheme, separate and distinct stances the board of management has recognised that accommodation being provided for each, much as if the institution is to live and thrive some scheme Burlington House now accommodates a number of must be devised for increasing its usefulness, and the independent institutions. proposal to amalgamate with the Society of Arts is the The amalgamation would give the London Instituoutcome of prolonged consideration of a difficult tion a large accession of annual income, and the problem.

revenues of the new institution would justify the exThe Society of Arts carries on to a large extent work tinction in perpetuity of the annual payment of two of the same nature as that for which the London Insti- guineas now required from the proprietors of the tution was founded, but whereas the institution has | London Institution, while leaving them a permanent suffered from residential changes, the society was never property in their shares disposable by will, or otherwise, more prosperous. But it, too, has had its ups and as heretofore, the Society of Arts having approved of downs. In the early 'forties of the last century it this as one of the terms of amalgamation. It would began to show signs of decrepitude, and in 1841 a be part of the arrangement that any proprietor precommittee was appointed to examine its position and ferring to withdraw from the scheme and to surrender make recommendations. But little seems to have been his share would be enabled to do so, and be paid 257. done until measures were taken for obtaining a Royal in discharge of his rights and interests in such share. Charter of Incorporation, which was granted in 1847. Those who remained would be embers of an instituThen it was proposed to hold an exhibition of English tion of very great importance and influence, well enindustry. Prizes for modern industrial art were offered, dowed, and in a position to carry into effect many and eagerly competed for, and by 1850 the membership objects of the highest public, scientific, and economic had risen again to 1500.

An exhibition of ancient and importance. mediæval art was held which was very successful, and It is not to be supposed that the proposed amalgamaa proposal to hold an international exhibition cul- tion will be carried through without encountering minated in the Great Exhibition of 1851. Since then opposition, but it will probably be found that a very the Society of Arts has done much good work in pro- large majority of both institutions is prepared to accept moting industrial art and encouraging inventive it. In the opinion of eminent counsel, the effect of its genius. The prosperity of the 'fifties was followed by charter is to constitute the London Institution in a some lean years, but for a generation past it has been legal sense a charity, with the result that its property highly prosperous, largely owing to the sagacious and funds are impressed with a charitable trust, and guidance of its present secretary. Sir Henry Wood has cannot be divided or applied to any other purpose than always attached great importance to the constitution of that prescribed by the charter. Consequently, the the council of the society. He has not only sought for property could not be divided up without serious risk. and found eminent men, he has got those who were if the amalgamation is to be carried through, the willing to give time and attention to the affairs of the most convenient and least costly way of carrying it into society, men like Sir Frederick Bramwell, Sir F. Abel, effect would be to promote an Act of Parliament for Sir W. Siemens, Sir Douglas Galton, Lord Alverstone, the purpose, and, granted the authorisation of general Sir J. W. Barry, Sir W. Preece, the Duke of Abercorn, meetings, this will be done. But an Act cannot be got

and energy.

until next year, and a site for the new building can It is reported by the Exchange Telegraph Company that hardly be secured before the Act is got, so that if all a violent earthquake occurred at Lahore on Tuesday, goes smoothly, a year or two must elapse before the April 4, causing serious loss of life and great damage to united societies, to be known as “The Society, of public buildings and other property. Arts and the London Institute," can receive their friends under the altered conditions, and in their new

A GRANT of 30,000l. has been authorised by the Carnegie premises.

Institution, Science states, for the solar observatory on The idea of thus combining into a single body two Mt. Wilson. It is expected that the first equipment will scientific institutions, each of considerable importance, cost about twice this sum. is a bold and novel one, and it is to be hoped that it may not fail of success. It would be a pity if

We learn with sincere regret that Prof. Pietro Tacchini,

any narrow views or selfish considerations hindered the formerly director for many years of the astronomical carrying out of a very interesting experiment. Each observatory of the Collegio Romano, and of the Central of the two corporations can supply much of what the

Office for Meteorology and Geodynamics at Rome, died other lacks. The constitution of the London Institu- on March 24 at sixty-seven years of age. tion is unfortunate. It consists of a body of share

The Times states that the Chartley herd of white cattle holders, the descendants or heirs of the original has just been purchased by Mr. J. R. B. Masefield, of founders, many of whom are naturally out of sympathy Cheadle, Staffordshire, on behalf of the Duke of Bedford, with the objects of the institution, and no means exist of introducing fresh blood or attracting to its member

who has come forward and saved the herd from leaving ship the men who would most fitly carry on its proper

the country or falling into the hands of the taxidermist. work. Very early in its career the kindred Royal An agricultural education and forestry exhibition will Institution altered its constitution, disendowed its pro- be held in connection with the show of the Royal Agriprietors, and adopted a more popular and democratic cultural Society at Park Royal on June 27–30. Any offers organisation. Its unfailing success ever since has proved the wisdom of the change. But the Finsbury

of exhibits, or inquiries, should be addressed to the secreinstitution possesses considerable property. It has a

tary of the society, at 13 Hanover Square, London, W. magnificent library. Its list of members is still Tue Easter excursion of the Geologists' Association will a showy one. It only requires the infusion of fresh be to mid-Lincolnshire. The party will leave London for blood; it wants new life and vigour. The Society of Grantham on Thursday, April 20, and after visiting several Arts is a very popular and vigorous body, full of life places of geological interest will leave Lincoln for London

It does much really useful public work. Its examinations, for instance, attract more candidates

on Wednesday, April 26. The excursion secretary is Mr. than that of any other private body in the kingdom.

W. P. D. Stebbing, 8 Playfair Mansions, Queen's Club Its Cantor lectures (which are always freely open to Gardens, London, W. London students) are a valuable educational agency. A GREAT historical pageant is in active preparation at But it is hampered by want of larger offices, its library Sherborne, Dorsetshire, to commemorate the 1200th anniis far from being a credit to it, and it might well devote more attention and more funds to purposes of research

versary of the founding of the town, bishopric, and school and investigation.

by St. Ealdhelm, A.D. 705. The pageant, which will be A new institution such as should be formed ought to

presented in the ruins of Sherborne Castle on June 12-15. possess the good points of both its parents, while avoid

will take the form of a folk-play written by Mr. Louis X ing the weaknesses of either. It might also form a

Parker and dealing with the chief historical events of nucleus round which might gather many of the smaller the town. societies, now often inadequately housed. In a suit- The death of Dr. L. Bleekrode, of the Hague, is able building accommodation might well be provided announced in the Chemical News. Dr. Bleekrode's work for many other societies, scientific, literary, and artistic, which are now scattered about in various

was principally connected with electrical matters, his first quarters of London.

paper, in 1867, being on the influence of heat on electro Even a larger scheme is conceivable. Burlington motive force. In 1870 he wrote a paper on a curious House can find room for but a small proportion of the property of gun-cotton; other papers dealt with electrical scientific bodies of London. Why should not this pro- conductivity and electrolysis in chemical compounds, posed amalgamation lead to the erection of a second observations on the microphone, &c. Burlington House, of which those of our larger and richer societies who are not satisfied with their premises March 25, of the eminent German metallurgist, Prof.

We regret to see the announcement of the death, on should erect each their own part, independent certainly of one another, and yet combined under a common

Bruno Kerl, at the age of eighty-one. He was professor roof?

of metallurgy at the Clausthal School of Mines, and subsequently at the Berlin School of Mines, and was the

author of a number of metallurgical works. His first NOTES.

book, on the smelting processes of the Upper Hartz, Lord Kelvin, who has been out of health for some

was published in 1852. His important treatise on metaltime, underwent a serious operation on March 29. He

lurgy was translated into English by Sir W. Crookes and passed a restless night on March 30, but has much im

E. Röhrig in 1868. His books on assaying were also proved since then, and appears to be making satisfactory translated. progress toward recovery. The King and the Prince and The importance of the application of mathematics to Princess of Wales have made special inquiries as to his engineering problems has frequently been insisted upon in condition ; and there have been numerous callers.

these columns. Another instance of the close connection Sir William Ramsay, K.C.B., F.R.S., has been elected between pure and applied science is afforded by an ina member of the Athenæum Club under the provisions of vestigation of some disregarded points in the stability of the rule which empowers the annual election of nine masonry dams, by Prof. Karl Pearson and Mr. L. W. persons “ of distinguished eminence in science, literature, Atcherley, referred to by Sir William Garstin in connec the arts, or for public services."

tion with the scheme for raising the Nile dam, in a recent

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