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Fig. 4


In Fig. 6 is shown the Wehnelt interrupter. A large rect

inductance not too small, the interrupter begins to act. A angular glass vessel containing dilute sulphuric acid is pink glow appears around the extremities of the anodes, the fitted with an ebonite cover, ec, which supports the elec- interrupter emits a loud note of definite pitch, and a shower trodes. The terminal T, is in connection with the lead of sparks is produced across the space between the secondary plate, LP, which forms the kathode. The bridge-piece, B,

terminals of the coil. Bubbles of gas rush up each glass tube, G T, the electrolyte rises in each tube, and may overflow through the side openings, o.

Another form of electrolytic interrupier, originally due to Caldwell, but subsequently improved and modified in various ways by others, is shown in Fig. 7. The terminal 1, is, as in the Wehnelt interrupter, connected to a lead plate. But instead of a platinum anode, a lead plate is also used for the other electrode. This second lead plate is surrounded by a glass tube, GT, which completely separates it from the remainder of the electrolyte except for a small perforation at the bottom of the tube, through which passes the pointed end, P, of a long glass rod, G, supported in a tubular rack rod, r, which may be raised or lowered by means of a pinion fitted with the milled head, MH. The area of communication between the electrolyte in the tube and that outside is controlled by raising or lowering the conical glass plug. Either electrode may be used indifferently as anode or kathode.

The break takes place at the perforation of the glass tube. PR

In conclusion, thanks must be expressed to Mr. A. C. Cossor, of 54 Farringdon Road, E.C., who very kindly provided an induction coil and a number of interrupters

required to carry out the tests recorded in this article. supports two rack rods, R, and the anode terminal Ty. Each rack rod is geared with a pinion by means of which it may be raised or lowered as required, mh being the milled heads for turning the pinions. The rack rods are continued

UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL downwards in the form of thinner rods encircled by glass

It is stated that Sir William MacDonald, of Montreal,

has decided to give 800,oool. toward the erection of a S

normal school at St. Anne de Bellevue, a few miles distant from Montreal, and the erection and endowment of an agricultural college at the same place.

There is no sign of diminution in the interest shown by public authorities and by private benefactors for higher education in the United States. We learn from Science

that by the will of Mrs. Stanford about 400,000l. is beT T

queathed to Leland Stanford Junior University. The university also comes into possession of the house built by

Senator Stanford at San Francisco and its contents, which 18)

are valued at more than 400,000l. The legislature of

North Carolina has appropriated 10,000l. for the erection (@)

of a chemical laboratory at the University of North Carolina.

We have received a copy of the prospectus of courses tubes, G T, and finally end in stiff platinum points, PP, around of instruction in poultry-keeping held at University College, which the tapered ends of the tubes fit very closely. By Reading, and the college poultry farm at Theale. The raising or lowering either anode, a smaller or greater surface farm, which is of about 40 acres, largely meadow land, is of it may be exposed to the surrounding electrolyte. The used also as an experimental station. The courses are of density of the acid depends on the voltage at which the varying lengths and different degrees of difficulty to meet

the requirements of all grades of students. The practical work is exhaustive, and due attention is given to kindred technical subjects such as carpentry. It appears that this branch of the work of the college has had an important influence on the development of scientific poultry-keeping in Berkshire and neighbouring counties.

A STRONG committee has been formed for the purpose of securing suitable conditions of work, and providing oppor

tunities for development, of Bedford College for Women in LP

London. An appeal to the public on behalf of the college has just been issued. The college, which is a school of the University of London, must before long come to an end unless it can obtain a large amount of public support. A freehold site and a new building are essential, and it is estimated that their cost may amount to 150,000l. Experience has shown that the fees of the students and the allotted share of the Treasury grant to university colleges are not sufficient without considerable additional support

to carry on the higher education supplied by the college, interrupter is to be supplied. The interrupter is connected the cost of which is constantly increasing. To make the in series with the primary of the induction coil, and, if work of the college fully effective, it is therefore desirable necessary, with an additional self-inductance. As soon as to obtain further endowment to the extent of 100,000l. or the circuit is closed, and provided the area of anode surface the equivalent income. The Senate of the Universe exposed to the electrolyte is not excessive, and the self- London has shown approbation of the scheme


Fig. 5.




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housing and endowing the college by passing the following

SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. resolution :-“ That the authorities of Bedford College in

LONDON. issuing an appeal for funds in accordance with the scheme submitted to the Senate be permitted to state that the Royal Society, March 16.-" On the Occurrence of appeal is made with the knowledge and full approval of Certain Ciliated Infusoria within the Eggs of a Rotifer, the Senate." The Princess of Wales has promised a

considered from the Point of View of Heterogenesis.' donation to the funds, promised By , Tate. Donations to the fund may be sent to Major the occurrence of heterogenesis has hitherto been Darwin, hon. treasurer of the college, or to Miss Henrietta strong as to have made it almost impossible to obtain an Busk, hon secretary of the appeal fund, at Bedford College, adequate consideration for the actual evidence adduced in Baker Street, W. Friends of higher education for women

favour of this or that alleged instance. But of late, preare urged to help in placing the college on an adequate conceptions in the domain of physics and chemistry have and permanent basis.

received severe shocks, and when we are told that a

called element” is daily being transformed and another MR. ARNOLD-FORSTER, M.P., Secretary of State for War,

is actually originating therefrom,

there appears distributed the prizes to successful students of the Wool

chance of attention being paid to the alleged existence of wich Polytechnic on Saturday last. In his speech which

phenomena in the organic world which would seem to * followed the presentation of the prizes Mr. Arnold-Forster

but the carrying on into a higher platform of the familiar emphasised the importance of sound scientific and technical

but important phenomena known as allotropism and education. He said that the great lesson this country has

isomerism. to learn is the importance of scientific organisation. There

Hitherto, alleged instances of heterogenesis have, with was a time, not so long ago, when we were in the habit

out adequate consideration of evidence, been almost als ar of laughing at the methods and ways in vogue on the

assumed to be results of “infection," but the writer clairs Continent, and of considering ourselves immeasurably

that in the cases with which the present memoir is ionsuperior to Germany and other nations. But a change

cerned, any such explanation is quite impossible in regard has taken place, and these other nations-not by following

to one of the cases, at least, in which we have masses et our example, but by organising on scientific lines—have

living matter so large that they average mm. in become immeasurably more advanced and fit to succeed

diameter, being converted in the course of three days into than those who preceded them one or two generations

great ciliated Infusoria of equal bulk ago; and we have to exert ourselves to protect ourselves

The communication (which is illustrated by a large from defeat in the industrial contest. Referring to the

number of photomicrographs) deals with two sets of heterom importance of scientific organisation, Mr. Arnold-Forster

genetic transformations occurring in the great eggs ut spoke of an instance in which he discovered that the electric carbons in use by the Admiralty, were largely (1) the transformation of the entire contents of a Hydatira

gemmæ " of one of the largest of the rotifers, name! manufactured in France. Realising the importance of this in case of war, he made inquiries, and, as the result

egg into a single great Otostoma ; and (2) the segmenof these and of experiment, it has been found possible to

ation of the Hydatina egg into twelve to twenty •pherie. produce electric carbons in this country of the same per-| embryo Vorticella and sometimes into embryo Oxytricka.

masses, and the development of these sometimes intr> fection and accuracy as those formerly brought in from

(1) The Transformation of the Entire Contents of abroad. He expressed his pleasure that a great step for

Hydatina Egg into a Great Olostoma.-Having witness ward has been made in the matter of standardising and testing, and that in both these departments this country

on very many occasions the stages of this remarkable is abreast of the times.

transformation of the contents of a rotifer's egg into a A good deal could be done by scientific organisation, and he looked to such institutions

ciliated infusorium, the author is desirous of acquainting

the Royal Society with the simple procedure needful 10 -as the polytechnics to accomplish much in that direction.

able zoologists to study for themselves the series of changis The address delivered by Prof. Henry T. Bovey, F.R.S., leading to a result which many of them may be disposed at the Universal Exposition, St. Louis, 1904, on the funda- to deem incredible. mental conceptions which enter into technology, has been All that is necessary is to procure a good stock of the reprinted as a pamphlet from the McGill University large rotifers by placing some surface mud, haring » Magazine. After defining the “ technologue" as an inter

coating of Euglenæ, from a ditch in which Hlydatina dar mediary between the savant and the mechanic, translating known to exist, into a glass bowl, and to pour har the discoveries of the former into the uses of the latter, water to a depth of about inches. In the course of tax Prof. Bovey tries to ascertain the controlling ideas common or three days (with a temperature of 10° C. or 179 (L," to all technical experts. These, he says, have all observed the Hydatinæ are abundant, a good crop of their lais that nature works in no arbitrary manner, but by fixed eggs will be seen at the surface of the fluid, where it laws; that if these laws could be brought into right re- in contact with the glass. lation with us, we might be able to gear our small By the aid of a scalpel passed along their track for : machines to the vast wheel of nature; that in the study short distance, groups of twenty or thirty eggs ray of the laws of nature there is certainly revealed more of taken up at one time, and gently pressed off the orige the infinite possibilities of our environment. In order to the blade into a small, white stone pot full of u study to advantage, workers in pure and applied science Some of such small masses of eggs (mixed, perhaps ** must get into line with psychological laws, when it will a few Euglena) will float, and others will sink. After be found that the apprehension of a fact by the mind re- seven or eight of these masses have been gathered and quires the exercise of the power of observation, and the deposited, the cover should be placed upon the pot 025 observations must be of a special character, minute, to cut off from the eggs all light rays, both visible 4 accurate, and selective. Observation, he says, means to invisible. Two other pots should be similarly charga see with attention, and as as concentration takes When the pots have remained covered for thirty-is place, a process of analysis begins and the worker passes hours, one of them may be opened, and some of the situat to classification and generalisation. Throughout this pro- masses of eggs from the bottom of the pot should cess the training of the hand stimulates the brain centres. taken up with a tiny pipette and placed in a drop out there Technology has a two-fold nature; first, learning by on a microscope slip. specialised study how to understand and apply the prin- On examination by a low power it will be sent ciples of mechanics to the construction of works of utility, there are many empty egg-cases, that within some re ard, secondly, training the mind to work easily along there are embryo Hydatinæ in different stages of deveda lines of scientific thought. The idea of utility, he main- ment, while within the remaining eggs the contrats ? tains, seems to be the key to the distinction between pure be wholly different, consisting of an aggregate of mirr. science and technology; indeed, technology may be called pellucid vesicles, each containing a few granules together the child of science on one hand, and of industrial progress with a variable amount of granules interspersed aires on the other.

the vesicles.





When a second pot is opened two and a half or three embryos do not revolve before rupturing their cysts, and days after the eggs have been placed therein, and portions the Hydatina egg produces either the one or the other of its contents are cxamined in the same way, a larger form-never a mixture of the two. proportion of empty egg-cases will be seen.

There may

It cannot be supposed that twelve to twenty of either be very few or even no developing rotifers still within of these ciliates in an embryo condition could penetrate the eggs, and in other egg-cases, instead of the motion- the egg-case, could devour its contents without being seen, less vesicular contents previously seen, great ciliates may and would then, as embryos, encyst themselves (all in two be found slowly revolving, or, under the influence of the days, or less)-only, almost immediately after, again to light, rupturing the egg-case, struggling out, and swim- pass out of their encysted condition, and to appear as the ming away with rapid movements, partly of rotation. active young Vorticellæ or Oxytrichæ the development Some of the Infusoria before they emerge undergo of which the author has traced. segmentation into two, four, or rareiy, even into eight In its normal development the Hydatina egg never smaller ciliates.

goes through changes in which it is converted into an The large undivided Infusoria have their bodies densely aggregate of minute vesicles, or into a smaller number of packed with large corpuscles (modified representatives of separate and larger spheres, such as occurs as a prelude the vesicles of an earlier stage), and a large elongated to the transformation of the egg-contents into ciliated Innucleus which can be readily seen in some of them. They fusoria of this or that kind. possess the characteristic ear-shaped mouth indicated by the name Otostoma, and cilia are distributed all over

Geological Society, March 8.—Dr. J. E. Marr. F.R.S., the body in longitudinal lines, so as to give the appear

president, in the chair.Exhibits.-A series of photoance of a delicate longitudinal striation.

graphic views illustrating the geological structure and As a control experiment it will be well at the time that

physical features of the mountains of Skye : A. Harker. the pots are charged to place two or three batches of the The “ Cullinan " diamond : Dr. F. H. Hatch. By means eggs with some of the same water into a watch glass, of lantern slides from photographs the diamond was shown which is left exposed to light ; and at the expiration of

from four points of view. The stone

a porthree or four days, as well as at later periods, to search

tion (probably less than half) of a distorted octahedral among its contents for any of the same large ciliates, and crystal. As it now existed, the stone was bounded by also for any eggs in the intermediate vesicular stage above portions of four original octahedral surfaces and by four referred to. The author has invariably found that such a

cleavage-planes. The former showed in places a slight search yielded only negative results.

curvature, a mammillary structure, striations, and triIn taking batches of eggs, in the manner indicated, angular pittings, while the cleavage-surfaces were dis

The to be placed in the pots, individual eggs will necessarily tinguished by greater regularity and smoothness. be of different ages. It is only eggs that have not begun stone weighed 30244 carats. Its greatest linear dimension to develop which, under the cutting off not only of

was 4 inches. It was of remarkable purity for so large ordinary light, but probably of some invisible light rays,

a stone, approaching blue-white in colour. It was become speedily transformed into great ciliated Infusoria. found at the beginning of the present year, in the yellow Cutting off ordinary light rays alone from the eggs, by ground” of the Premier Mine, at a depth of 18 feet below placing them in a small covered glass dish shut up in a

the surface. The Premier Mine was

pipe,' cupboard or box and maintained at the same temperature situated on the farm of Elandsfontein, twenty miles northas before, seemed at first not to lead to similar results, but east of Pretoria (Transvaal). —Papers.-Observations on it was subsequently ascertained that the transformation will some of the Loxonematidæ, with descriptions of two new occur under such conditions, though only after the lapse species : Miss J. Donald. Shells having more convex of about nine days. It looks, therefore, as if the stoppage

whorls, less sigmoidal lines of growth than L. of some invisible rays, capable of passing through wood

sinuosum, cannot be left within the genus Loxonema. but not through stone, notably hastens the process.

The two new species described resemble the type in form During the time that these observations were being

and in the sinuosity of the lines of growth ; but the whorls made, and previously, no Otostomata had ever been seen are ornamented with spiral striæ, two of which frequently in association with Hydatinae, except those that had been

stand out and give the shell a banded appearance.—On taken from the experimental vessels. On two occasions some Gasteropoda from the Silurian rocks of Llangadock since, though from wholly different localities, Otostomata (Caermarthenshire) : Miss J. Donald. These fossils occur had been found in association with Hydatinæ. The adult

almost entirely in the state of casts and moulds. Eleven forms have been found to be much larger, having from

distinct forms have been made out, referable to two to three times the length of the great embryos which genera; but only seven are sufficiently well preserved for issue from the egg-cases, and also to be more highly specific determination. Five of these are new, including organised.

one described in the previous communication ; a new genus Many of these adult specimens the author has been able is described, for the reception of Euom phalus funatus. to keep for two months, and he has seen them pass into

Chemical Society, March 15.- Prof. W. A Tilden, F.R.S., an encysted condition, when they constitute masses the

president, in the chair.-It was announced that Prof. bulk of which is several times greater than that of Hyda- | Percy Frankland had presented to the society the eudiotina eggs. They are, likewise, enclosed in thick cyst

meter made and used by the late Sir Edward Frankland walls, wholly unlike the thin egg-cases of the Hydatina.

for the analysis of ethyl in 1849 ; that Prof. Retzius, of A Hydatina egg could not possibly be confounded with

Stockholm, had presented an engraving of Berzelius; and an adult encysted Otostoma, and the embryo Otostoma

that Mr. Oscar Guttmann had presented a bronze medal which emerges from the egg-case embodies the whole of

struck in honour of Roger Bacon in Paris in 1818. The the transformed substance of the egg. No minute

council, on behalf of the society, had expressed its Otostoma is ever to be seen within an egg, devouring its thanks for these gifts.—The following papers were read : contents. No ciliate is seen until the total contents of the

The velocity of oxime formation in certain ketones : A. W. egg having been transformed, the whole mass begins to Stewart. The results of measurements of these velocities revolve within the egg-case as a great embryo Otostoma. are generally in agreement with those already found

(2) The Origin of Twelve to Twenty l'orticellae or for the addition of sodium hydrogen sulphite to ketonic Oxytrichae from the Substance of a Single Hydatina Egg. compounds, and since the two reactions belong to different -These are most remarkable variations, which at different

types, it seems probable that the hindrance to the retimes have been occasionally met with in Hydatina eggs actions in the case of ketones containing many methyl taken from the experimental vessels,

groups near the carbonyl is due to stereochemical and Il the egg-substance is found to have segmented into

not to purely chemical causes.-The ultra-violet absorptwelve to twenty more or less equal spherical masses, there tion spectra of certain enol-keto-tautomerides, part i.: is at first no means of knowing whether such masses are E. C. C. Baly and C. H. Desch. The results indicate to be developed into embryo Vorticellæ or into embryo that the absorption band in these compounds is due to Oxytrichæ. But if either of the masses is seen to be re- change of linking taking place when one tautomeric form volving within its own delicate cyst, we may be sure that passes into the other. It is possible to account for the this particular egg will not yield Vorticellæ, as these formation of the absorption bands by adopting the physien


seven as


conception of the atoms as a system of electrons, and in Physical Society, March 24.-Prof. J. H. Poynting, this way the formation of the bands is placed in the same F.R.S., president, in the chair.-Note on the voltage category other spectral phenomena.-Esterification ratios of an inverted rotary converter : W. C. Clinton constants of substituted acrylic acids : J. J. Sudborough The values of the voltage ratios usually given for an and D. J. Roberts. The esterification constants of some inverted rotary converter make no allowance for the resisttwenty-two substituted acrylic and allied acids with methyl ance of the armature. In this note terms due to the effect alcohol have been determined. The results indicate that a of armature resistance are introduced into the ordinary substituted acrylic acid is esterified less readily than the corre- theoretical equations. The resultant voltage on the sponding saturated acid, and more readily than the corre- alternate current side is found to be less than that given sponding acetylenic acid, and that the effect of introducing by the usual rule. The calculation is only made for open substituents into acrylic acid is to lower the rate of esterifi- circuit conditions on the alternate current side.-On the cation.-2-Chlorocinnamic acids : J. J. Sudborough and Aux of light from the electric arc with varying power T. C. James.—Diortho-substituted benzoic acid, part vi., supply : G. B. Dyke. The paper records the results of conversion of methyl into ethyl esters : J. J. Sudborough experiments made on the electric arc with the following and T. H. Davies.-Simple method for the estimation of objects :-(1) To obtain a series of curves for alternating acetyl groups : J. J. Sudborough and W. Thomas. The and continuous arcs of different lengths showing the reacetyl derivative is hydrolysed with benzenesulphonic acid lation between the mean spherical candle-power and the and the mixture subjected to steam distillation.--Gyno- power supplied to the arc; (2) to compare the efficiencies cardin, a new cyanogenetic glucoside : F. B. Power and of the alternating and continuous arcs under different conF. H. Lees. This substance, obtained from the seeds of ditions of arc-length and power-supply.-On the application Gynocardia odorata, has the formula C,H,O,N, and is of the cymometer to the measurement of coefficiencies o readily hydrolysed by gynocardase, the enzyme present in coupling of oscillation transformers: Dr. J. A. Fleming. the seeds, and with difficulty by boiling 5 per cent. hydro- This paper deals first with the latest pattern of instrument chloric or sulphuric acid yielding d-glucose, hydrogen called by the author a cymometer, designed for thcyanide, and an undetermined aldehyde or ketone. With measurement of the frequency of electric oscillations, and alkalis it yields gynocardinic acid, C,H,O,.CO,H.- also the length of long electric waves. Catechin and acacatechin. Supplementary note : A. G. Perkin.-The action of ethyl dibromopropanetetra

CAMBRIDGE. carboxylate on the disodium derivative of ethyl propane- Philosophical Society, March 13. — Prol. Marshall Ward, tetracarboxylate. A correction : W. H. Perkin, jun.-- president, in the chair.-On the relation in size between Glutaconic acid and the conversion of glutaric acid into the megalosphere and the microspheric and megalospheric trimethylenedicarboxylic acid : W. H. Perkin, jun., and tests in the Nummulites : J. J. Lister. At the meeting of the G. Tattersall.—The transformations of highly substituted society on October 31, 1904, the author directed attention nitroaminobenzenes : K. J. P. Orton and A. E. Smith.- to the fact that in the three English species of NummuAn asymmetric synthesis of quadrivalent sulphur : S. lites, viz. N. laevigatus, variolarius and "elegans," both Smiles. It is shown that the two isomeric d- and l-methyl- megalospheric and microspheric forms were represented ethylthetine l-menthyl ester bromides are produced in equal and associated in the Bracklesham and Barton beds of the amount from the interaction of methylethyl sulphide and Hampshire basin. A comparison of the sizes of the l-menthyl bromoacetate.—The action of a-halogen ketones | megalospheres in these species suggested that a definite on alkyl sulphides : S. Smiles. It has been found that relation might exist between them and the sizes of the certain a-halogen-substituted ketones interact with alkyl whole microspheric tests. To examine this question several sulphides, forming the halides of sulphine bases. Descrip- | species have been studied. Arranging these species in tions of the products formed in several cases are given.- order of the sizes of the megalospheres, this is found to Pinene isonitrosocyanide and its derivatives : W. A. coincide with the order of the volumes of the microspher. Tilden and H. Burrows. Pinene isonitrosocyanide is tests (with the exception of the variety obesus of N. Bershown to be a nitrile, and from it has been obtained the foratus, the microspheric test of which falls one place our corresponding pinene isonitrosocarboxylamide,

in the series).—The Penguins of the Antarctic: E. 1. CH, (: NOH).CO.NH,

Wilson.-The old moraines of South Victoria Land: H. T. which on hydrolysis with hydrochloric acid yields an oily

Ferrar. The paper first dealt with the topography od substance which is probably the ketonic acid

South Victoria' Land, a land consisting of a range pyn 0:C, H,..CO,H.

mountains some 800 miles long in a north and south dirar-Some interactions of metallic cyanides with organic high, facing the sea and buttressing a vast interior ar

tion, with a steep eastward face on an average 10,000 feet bases : R. de J. Fleming-Struthers. Descriptions of a

field. Details were given of the stranded moraines number of compounds produced by the interaction of

Cape Adare, on the Possession Islands and on Franklin phenylhydrazine with various metallic cyanides are given.

Island, as well as those high on the slopes of Mount Royal Microscopical Society, March 15.—Mr. A. D. Erebus and Terror. The latter could only have been landel Michael in the chair.-A review of the work done by there by the Ross ice-sheet being thicker than it is an metallographers : J. E. Stead, F.R.S. Illustrations were

present. Reversed glaciers, glaciers not reaching the ses shown of the changes produced in metals by strains, a and beheaded glaciers were mentioned, all pointing to the diagram of the apparatus by which rapid reversals of same conclusion, a retreat of the ice. This retreat is om strains were effected being exhibited in illustration of this going on, so that increase of cold could not produce a portion of the subject. The effect of the continued heating greater glaciation. If this former greater extensions. of an alloy of copper and tin in boiling mercury, and also due to a warmer climate, why have the New Zealand that produced by immersion in liquid air, were demon-glaciers decreased of late, and what is the connection ta strated. Slides were also shown to illustrate “ surface the Ice-age" of Europe with the “Great Glacier Epoch flow" in antimony, and the microscopic structure of the of New Zealand and Patagonia ?-Notes on a collection : new silver standard.

parasites from the museum of University College, Dunăre. Linnean Society, March 16.-Prof. W. A. IIerdman, A. E. Shipley. The collection consisted of fifteen spec une F.R.S., president, in the chair.--Exhibits.-Animated of Nematoda and ten Cestoda, and came mainly trus photographs of plants taken by the kammatograph, show- marine animals of the northern seas, as might hare ben ing the natural movements of the plants accelerated so expected from the importance of Dundee as a walin as to be followed readily by the eye : Mrs. D. H. Scott. centre.-On the maturation of the egg and early devel; -A series of thirty lantern-slides, from photographs, of ment in certain sawilies (Tenthredinidæ): L. Doncaster. bird-life in the Falkland Islands : R. Vallentin. Paper.- In the eggs of saw flies which produce males whr u Contributions to the flora of Liberia : Dr. Otto Stapf. fertilised (Nematus ribesii, N. lacteus, N. patidus). te Descriptions of 3 new genera and 56 new species, in a second polar nucleus conjugates with the inner daug collection of about 260 species, collected by Mr. Alexander nucleus of the first polar body. The conjugatirg Whyte in the neighbourhood of Monrovia, in three different then break up into a group of chromosomes which conta localities. The flora shows a specific likeness to that of twice the number that is found in the maturation minus Sierra Leone, and the new genera are not endemic. These chromosomes persist for some hours, but finally :



appear. In the species which produce females from un- cyanic acid : M. Lespieau (see p. 544).-Ferric ethylate : fertilised eggs (Poecilosoma luteolum, Hemichroa rufa, Paul Nicolardot. The author has repeated the experiments Croesus varus) no conjugation between polar nuclei takes of Grimaux, and concludes that the soluble ferric ethylate place. In all cases the egg-nucleus sinks into the yolk described by the latter does not exist. The compound and gives rise to the cells of the embryo, and the chromo- | always contains sodium.-On substituted

from some number remains the same as that observed in the natural leucine : MM. Hugounenq and Morel. From the maturation divisions. Centrosomes were never seen in the carbimide of the ethyl ester of leucine the authors have maturation mitoses, but are present in the division-spindles prepared leucine-hydantoic acid, the mixed urea of leucine of the yolk-nuclei and blastoderm of both fertilised and and aniline, and symmetrical leucine urea.-On some virgin eggs.--Densities of the earth's crust beneath con- iodomercurates of pyridine : Maurice François.—On the tinents and oceans compared : Rev. O. Fisher.

heat of formation of calcium hydride and nitride : A.

Guntz and Henry Basset. By distilling commercial Paris.

calcium in a vacuum, with rapid cooling of the vapour, Academy of Sciences, March 27.-M. Troost in the chair.

the authors succeeded in obtaining the metal in a pure --On vessels of fused silica, their employment in chemistry,

state, and in a finely divided condition suitable for its and their permeability : M. Berthelot (see p. 544).—The conversion into the hydride and nitride. The calorimetric construction in

results show that all the heats of formation of calcium

of opaque homogeneous medium luminous rays which penetrate by a plane face : J.

compounds, based on Thomsen's data, ought to be inBoussinesq.-On surra and the differentiation of try

creased by 20-4 calories. This gives a positive instead of panosomes : A. Laveran and F. Mesnil. An experimental

a negative heat of formation for calcium carbide. Some comparison of the trypanosomes of surra arising in the applications of Watt's principle to the dissociation of the island of Mauritius and in India shows that they are

carbonates of lead and silver : Albert Colson.—The heat

of formation of oximes : Ph. Landrieu. The amount of morphologicaly the same, but the pathogenic action upon animals in the laboratory showed some differences between

heat given off by the reaction between aldehydes and the two trypanosomes. It seems clear that the trypano

ketones has been studied in two ways: firstly, by the somes of surra of Mauritius and of India are the same

interaction of the two substances in aqueous solution in species. There are three species which differ in their viru

presence of soda, and secondly, indirectly, by the bomb lence, the order of activity being India, Mauritius, and

calorimeter. Figures are given for oximes derived from Mbori.-On the plants from the Coal-measures found in

acetone, acetaldehyde, methyl-ethyl-ketone, benzaldehyde, the borings at Éply, Lesménils, and Pont-à-Mousson : R. acetophenone, camphor, and diphenyl-ketone, good agreeZeiler. The impressions of plants found at Eply corre

ment being obtained between the two methods.-On the spond to a well marked Westphalian lora. Of the speci- origin and composition of the essence of herb-bennet root: mens from the Lesménils boring two, Lonchopteris

Em. Bourquelot and H. Hérissey. It is found that the Defrancei and Cingularia typica, have hitherto been

essential oil does not exist preformed in the plant, but is observed in the Sarre coal basin, and hence would appear

the result of the interaction of a new enzyme upon a to point to the beds now being explored being a prolong- glucoside. The smell is due to the presence of eugenol, ation, of this field. The specimens from Pont-à-Mousson

the latter being identified by conversion into its benzoyl also point to the Sarrebrück stage of the Westphalian

ester.-On the experimental bases of the reticular hypoCoal-ineasures.-On the monochloro-derivatives of methyl

thesis : G. Friedel.—On a case of commensalism between cyclohexane : Paul Sabatier and Alp. Mailhe. Chlorine

a species of Balanoglossus and Lepidasthenia Digueti : acts readily upon methylcyclohexanone at the ordinary Ch. Gravier.-On the cause of the variations in the temperature, giving rise to numerous chlorinated deriva- length of the intestine in the larvæ of Rana esculenta : tives. Of these a special study has been made of the

Emile Yung. It is shown that the shortening is retarded monochlor-derivatives, the main product being shown to

by the presence of undigested substances, the shortening consist of two of the five possible isomers.-Prof. van 't

taking place when the intestine is empty.-On the growth Hoff was elected a correspondant for the section of

in weight of the guinea-pig : Mlle. M. Stefanowska. mechanics in the place of the late Prof. Willard Gibbs.

The relation found between weight and age is shown in The search for Tempel's periodic comet (1867, 2) in 1905 :

the form of two curves, algebraic expressions for which R. Gautier. This comet, first seen in 1867, and again

are also given.-On the heats of combustion of the nervous in 1873 and 1879, did not make its reappearance as pre

and muscular tissue of the guinea-pig, expressed as a dicted in 1885, 1892, and 1898. The date of its possible

function of the age : J. Tribot.-Contribution to the study appearance in 1905 is discussed, and its elements calcu

of acid dyscrasia : M. A. Desgrez and Mlle. Bl. Guende,

-The action of calcium permanganate upon the toxins of lated. The author expresses the hope that a special search will be made over the regions indicated by observatories

tetanus, diphtheria, and tuberculosis : J. Baudran.-On a possessing instruments of sufficient power or equipped with

case of osteomalacia causing extreme deformation of the photographic apparatus.-On Coulomb's law : L. Lecornu.

skeleton, and terminated by a spontaneous retrocession A reply to some remarks of M. Painlevé on the same

of the lesions : P. Berger.-On the favourable action of subject.-On a

the X-rays in some cases of non-suppurating tuberculous arrangement for the use of the methods of interferential spectroscopy: Ch. Fabry. The adenopathy: J. Bergonié.—The palæontological dismethod is specially adapted for the study of a spectrum

coveries of M. de Morgan in Persia : H. Douvillé.-On

the discovery of coal at Meurthe-et-Moselle : C. Cavallier. the electric arc. The apparatus is a modification of one

at Meurthe-et-Moselle : R. previously described by the author. Instead of the inter

Nicklés.—The discovery of a workable seam of coal in ference bands being observed directly, they are viewed

French Lorraine : Francis Laur.-On the course of the through a spectroscope, the slit of which may be left

solidification of the earth : A. Leduc. A discussion of the fairly large, unless rays very close together are under

views on this question recently put forward by MM. Lawy observation. The arrangement possesses several advan

and Puiseux.-On the influence of eclipses on the movetages over the earlier form, the chief being that there is

ment of the atmosphere: W. de Fonvielle and Paul no possibility of mistaking the radiation under examin

Borde.—The relation between the density and salinity of ation.---An electrometer with

and neutral

sea-water : A. Chevallier. needle : M. Guinchant. The theory of the instrument is given, together with its experimental verification. The

INDIA. instrument gave a deflection of 310 mm. for a potential

Asiatic Society of Bengal, March 1.-Earwigs of the difference of one volt, and the delicacy can be increased Indian Museum : M. Burr. A list of the specimens in the three times by a slight modification of the arrangements. Indian Museum, with descriptions of four new species.-The oxidation of metals in the cold in presence of On the fresh-water polype of the Calcutta tanks, with ammonia : C. Matignon and G. Desplantes. In the exhibition of living specimens: N. Annandale. The presence of ammonia the slow oxidation by oxygen at the polype of the Calcutta tanks is identical with Hydra ordinary temperature of a large number of metals takes viridis, Linn. It varies considerably in colour. What is place, including mercury, silver, nickel, cobalt, molybdenum, probably the same species has been seen in the botanic fungsten, and copper.-Cryoscopic studies made in hydro- gardens at Penang.--The composition of the oil from Bir


formed of numerous brilliant lines, such as that of iron, in on the boring for coal



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