Page images




present. After Mr. George Macmillan had given agricultural associations, which the institute could disaccount of the past history of the school, a marble tablet charge independently of the action of the different Governto the memory of Penrose was unveiled by the Crown ments. (3) The financial resources of the institute. Prince, who delivered an address in English. Speeches were

In the House of Commons on April 5 Sir W. Palmes then delivered by Mr. Cecil Smith, a former director of the

asked the President of the Board of Agriculture whether school, Homolle, secretary to the congress, who paid

his attention has been directed to experiments which have an eloquent tribute to the amiable and noble character of

been carried on in America with a view to the propagation Penrose, as well as to his great scientific attainments, and

and use upon the land of nitrogen-producing bacteria; by Profs. Conze, Wheeler, Waldstein, and Bosanquet

whether he is aware that certain rights relating to the (director of the school). The various sections of the con

method of preparation of these bacteria are the property gress met for the reception and discussion of papers on

of the l'nited States Government, and that that Govern. April 9 and 10.

ment is distributing packets of these bacteria free of charge A MEETING of the Association of Economic Entomologists to any farmers who apply for them, and that the result will be held at Birmingham on April 19 and 20, in the

of such distribution has been beneficial for farming; and, large medical theatre of the university. The president of if so, could he say whether any rights relating to the the association is Mr. F. V. Theobald, and the secretary preparation of these nitrogen-producing bacteria prevent Mr. W. E. Collinge, University of Birmingham.

His Majesty's Government from adopting a similar course;

and, if not, whether he is prepared to recommend that a The London Geological Field Class, conducted by Prof.

similar free distribution be adopted in this country. In H. G. Seeley, F.R.S., will begin its twentieth year's reply, Mr. Fellowes remarked that some articles on the subon Saturday, April 29, with a visit to the north

ject have appeared in the Board's monthly journal. Experi. downs at Betchworth. The field class, which is carried

ments as to the value of nitrogen-producing bacteria are on continuously on the Saturday afternoons in May, June and July, affords practical teaching in geology by study

now being carried out under the auspices of the Board by

several of the agricultural colleges in this country, and so ing direct from nature the structure and modes of occur

soon as the results are known the Board will consider rence of the rocks in the basin of the Thames and adjacent

what further action in the matter can be taken in the country. Further particulars may be obtained from the

interest of British agriculturists. The process of prosecretary, Mr. J. W. Jarvis, St. Mark's College, Chelsea,

ducing and cultivating the bacteria has been patented by S.W.

the Cnited States Department of Agriculture, but it appears At the annual meeting of the Iron and Steel Institute, that the department does not propose indefinitely to (onto be held on May 11 and 12, the Bessemer gold medal tinue its gratuitous distribution. There appears to be for 1905 will be presented to Prof. J. O. Arnold. The nothing to prevent the manufacture and sale of the material awards of the Andrew Carnegie gold medal and research

in this country. scholarships will be announced ; and the president, Mr.

ACCORDING to the report of the Australian Museuin, R. A. Hadfield, will deliver his inaugural address. The

Sydney, for 1903-4, remarkable fluctuations occur in the following is a list of papers that are expected to be

annual number of visitors. In 1900, for instance, the submitted :-experiments on the fusibility of blast furnace

total was 85,474, in 1901 123,326, in 1902 100,704, and in slags, Dr. O. Boudouard ; recent developments of the

1903 118,372. The general condition and progress of the Bertrand-Thiel process, Mr. J. H. Darby and Mr. G.

museum appear to be satisfactory. Hatton; the application of dry-air blast to the manufacture of iron, Mr. James Gayley ; the effect produced by liquid

No. 3 of the Johns Hopkins University Circular for the air temperature on the mechanical and other properties of

current year contains an account of observations and es. iron, Mr. R. A. Hadfield; the cleaning of blast furnace periments with regard to the abnormally elongated form gas, Mr. Axel Sahlin; the failure of an iron plate through

assumed by a considerable percentage of American oysters fatigue, Mr. S. A. Houghton ; the continuous steel-making during the early stages of growth. The author, Mr. O.C. process in fixed open-hearth furnaces, Mr. S. Surzycki ;

Glaser, concludes that this is due to crowding, and that accidents due to the asphyxiation of blast furnace workmen,

it is a premature assumption of the normal adult conMr. B. H. Thwaite ; and the behaviour of the sulphur in

dition. The crowded condition of these prematurely old coke in the blast furnace, Prof. F. Wüst and Mr. P. Wolff.

oysters makes it impossible for them to expand and grow

to the normal width, but if removed to a inore favourable REUTER's correspondent at Rome reports that the draft

situation they quickly assume the ordinary shape. scheme for the organisation of the International Agricultural Institute, which will be considered by the con

The second portion of the article by Mr. F. Voss in ference to be held in May, is as follows :-(1) The con

part iii. of vol. Ixxviii. of the Zeitschrift fur wissenschaft, stitution and organisation of the institute. (2) Functions

liche Zoologie, on the thorax of the house-cricket, with of the institute :-(a) To report periodically information especial reference to the articulation of the wings and concerning agricultural production, the conditions of labour

their movements, and thus to the mechanics of insat in rural districts, and the diseases of plants and live stock.

Night in general, is devoted to the musculature, and is (b) To facilitate the organisation and working of cooper

illustrated with several diagrams and text figures. The ation between the rural communities of different countries,

other article in the same issue, by Mr. F. Fuhrmann, ci and to provide insurance and banking facilities for the

Gratz, is devoted to the history of the adrenal bodies of benefit of agriculture. (c) To propose on its own initiative

the guinea-pig. The internal tissue of these organs is or at the invitation of Governments interested, inter

subject to very rapid post-mortem degeneration, so that the national measures and institutions for the protection of the

investigation is one of considerable difficulty. common interests of the agriculturists of all countries, and ACCORDING to its report for the past year, the Rugby at the same time to consider the resolutions passed by School Natural History Society continues to do stegu international congresses on agriculture. (d) To exercise work, and its permanent collections are making sat's other functions which are already exercised by the great factory progress. During the year two important additors have been made by gifts to the museum, namely, a collec- commerce and industry, is opportune for considering the tion of British butterflies and one of birds' eggs, the possibility of changes in allied departments. A pertinent latter including many rare specimens. The conservatory, article advocating the establishment of a bureau of forestry containing the greater part of the vivarium, has been re- as a complement to the Indian Forest Department appears built, and a new case is in course of construction for the in the Indian Forester (January). The duties of the staff geological collection. On the other hand, the secretary would include the preparation of working plans, the indeplores the lack of interest in microscopy, and also the stitution and supervision of experimental investigations, few competitors for prizes.

and the responsibility of regulating the cultivation and

supply of forest products. Is the report of the Northumberland Sea Fisheries on the scientific investigations conducted in 1904, it is stated A Circular (vol. ii., No. 24) of the Royal Botanic that there has been a decided decrease in the number of Gardens, Ceylon, by Mr. R. H. Lock, deals with the fiat fish, especially plaice, in Cambois Bay, although in varieties of cacao trees existing in the gardens and the this respect the other stations do not depart materially experiment station, Peradeniya, and incidentally supplies from the satisfactory results of the last few years. A some interesting information on the colour of the seeds. number of flat fish, chiefly dabs, were marked and re- As a primary division, Criollo varieties having seeds with turned to the sea. Those re-captured apparently indicate a thin shell are distinguished from the Forastero varieties that plaice do not usually leave the inshore waters until with a hard shell. Fruits of the old red type of Criollo they are approaching maturity (four or five years old), but were found to contain about 14 per cent. of purple and that dabs show a separation of the sexes, the females 80 per cent. of white seeds. Forastero varieties pass from remaining near the shore while the males migrate to forms of good quality, having well rounded beans of a deeper water twenty or thirty miles to the south. Legis- light colour, to those of a poor quality, in which the beans lation for the protection of lobsters does not work well, as are flat, purple, and bitter. The proportion of white to the fishermen are in the habit of stripping and selling purple seeds in a number of pods of one of the best the “berried ” females instead of returning them to the Forastero varieties was 35 per cent. to 63 per cent.


Nos. 1 and 2 of the Zeitschrift of the Berlin GesellIn the first part of vol. xxxiii. of Gegenbaur's Morpho- schaft für Erdkunde contain a valuable paper by Dr. S. logisches Jahrbuch is continued Dr. A. Fleischmann's | Passarge on the Kalahari region and its significance as article on the skull of the Amniota, Dr. O. Hofmann con- a factor in the ethnography of South Africa. The paper tributing a section on the structure of the roof of the discusses the physical and biological conditions of the mouth-cavity in lizards. The second article, by Dr. H. region, and the distribution of the races of mankind. It Adolphe, is devoted to a discussion of the variation in the is illustrated by a number of excellent maps. human sternum and vertebral column, more especially as regards the number of vertebræ which may bear ribs and

The most recent addition to the Abhandlungen of the which may enter into the composition of the sacrum.

Vienna Geographical Society is a paper by Dr. Artur After referring to analogous variations in apes and

Gavazzi, forming the first or morphological " part of a monkeys, the author considers that there is no evidence that

monograph on the lakes of the Karst region. The work any of the earlier mammals had eight cervical vertebræ.

includes measurements of permanent lakes, fresh-water, In the third article Mr. W. M. Smallwood records some

brackish, and salt, periodic lakes," and periodically inobservations on the chromosome vesicles developed in the

undated poljen.” Observations of the micro-plankton earlier stages of nudibranch molluscs.

and diatoms have been made by Drs. L. Car, A. Forti,

and V. Lurgaiolli. Dr. Gavazzi's paper forms an imThe two original articles in Biologisches Centralblatt portant contribution to our knowledge of an extremely of March 15 are devoted to the subject of ants, Mr. E.

interesting region. Wasmann continuing his account of the origin of slavery among these insects, while Prof. D. H. Forel figures and

We have received the report of the Danish Meteorological describes the nests and fungus-gardens" of certain South

Institute on the state of the ice in the Arctic seas during American ants. The photographs and notes on which the

1904. The statistics go to show that the winter of 1903-4 latter account is based were communicated to the author

was comparatively mild in that part of the Arctic regions by Dr. E. Goeldi, director of the museum at Pará. In

which lies north of the Atlantic Ocean, that during 1904 the case of Atta sexdens, it appears that the female has

the East Greenland current supplied the temperate seas a fungus-garden to herself, in which the eggs are laid ;

with a smaller quantity of polar ice than in a normal year, and while this and other large species of the same genus,

and that the Labrador current carried more than the together with certain kinds of Acromyrmex, make their

average number of icebergs past Newfoundland. It is fungus-gardens in holes in the ground, the smaller Atta

expected that during 1905 there will be more ice along the moelleri constructs them in hollow trees, under leaves, and

coast of East Greenland and in Davis Strait than in 1904, in such-like situations.

and less off Labrador and Newfoundland.



instalment of
account by Mr. B.

THE Meteorological Institute of the Netherlands has Fedtschenko of his journey in Central Asia is given in

issued a paper, by M. J. P. van der Stok, continuing and vol. iv., parts vi. and vii., of the Bulletin du Jardin extending M. Phaff's discussion of tidal observations made Imperial Botanique, St. Petersburg. These letters relate on board the light-ships on the Netherland coasts. The to his wanderings across the Pamir plateau, and he de- periodic movements in horizontal and vertical planes, and scribes the vertical sequence of plant formations observed

the progressive movements of the waters, are dealt with in the unexplored valley of the Mouskol River.

separately, and the general result is to support the view

set forth by Lord Kelvin in 1878, that the tides of the The present time, when changes are pending in India North Sea would not be materially affected if the Straits in connection with the formation of a department of of Dover were closed. Further observations, especially off




the English coasts and in the centre of the North Sea, ! interest. Among these are an estimate of the future cual are necessary for the complete investigation of the complex output of the United Kingdom, calculated at its average conditions which occur.

decreasing rate of increase during the last thirty years, by

Mr. R. Price-Williams, a report on the colonial and An interesting address was recently delivered to the

foreign coal resources by Mr. Bennett H. Brough, and a Royal Meteorological Society (published in its Journal for

report on deep borings through Secondary rocks by Mi. January last) by Mr. C. W. R. Royds, first lieutenant of

W. Whitaker. Lastly, part xii. is a supplement contain the National Antarctic vessel Discovery. As the observ

ing the plans and diagrams referred to in the evidence, ations are under discussion, he was only able

The report on the coal available in concealed unproved to give a general account of the meteorological conditions

areas at depths less than 4000 feet is certainly the most of the Antarctic, but entered fully into the arduous labours

important of this valuable series of documents. Without which were zealously carried out by the whole of the

being over-sanguine, the committee has added 40,000 observing staff. The meteorological instruments were set

million tons to the probable coal resources of the kingdom. up on the ice on April 17, 1902, in lat. 77° 50' S., and

The coloured geological map of the United Kingdom, on eye observations were continued until February 15, 1904,

the scale of 25 miles to the inch, accompanying this trat intervals of two hours; between 8h. a.m. and noh. p.m.

port, is of particular interest. they were taken under the superintendence of Mr. Royds, and the night observations were divided between the THE well known firm of Bausch and Lomb (London eleven officers, each taking one night. In addition agents, Messrs. A. E. Staley and Co.) has brought there were the self-recording instruments; these out an admirable instrument in their “ B.B.P. portable managed under great difficulties, and their continuous microscope." The workmanship is excellent, and in spite registration was entirely due to the mechanical skill of the fact that the stand and accessories are packed away of Mr. Skelton, as they were frequently choked by

into a

case measuring 11.4x7-8 4.6 inches, the instru. blizzards. On these occasions the rain gauge would ment is thoroughly serviceable and convenient for use. be buried under three or four feet of snow. The lowest The base of the stand is made of two diverging bars, which screen temperature recorded in the winter quarters was move on the upright column so as to assume a parallel

- 59°5; on the same day at Cape Armitage (1) miles position when ready for packing ; but they are well and distant) it was - 64°:6; the coldest day at the latter

heavily constructed, and are perfectly rigid when open station was -670.7 (or nearly 100° of frost) on May 16,

The stage is large, and is ingeniously contrived to turn 1903. The highest black-bulb reading in the sun

into the plane of the stand when in the case, and when open 154', on December 21, 1902. The heaviest gale recorded

it is firmly held in its place. The objectives are is the was 85 miles per hour, by the Robinson anemometer.

quality which would be expected from a firm with so high Throughout the stay in the Antarctic Circle no rain was recorded, and fogs were

a reputation, and the cedar oil for the inmersion lens is not nearly so prevalent as is

contained in a metal box, so that there is no danger al generally supposed ; day after day clear skies and continuous 24 hours' sunshine were recorded. Speaking of

breakage or leakage. We think the instrument quite justifies the description given of it

mirri s.), the barometer as an instrument of warning of gales, Mr. Royds states that all faith was lost in it, as they came

capable of being taken out and set up in a few pinine's on without any appreciable sudden change in the motion

ready for use, giving all the desirable features of the of the mercury.

highest grade bacteriological laboratory instrument."

IN the classical researches of Sainte-Claire Deville on The final report of the Royal Commission on Coal

dissociation much use was made of the “hot and cold Supplies was recently reviewed at some length in NATURE

tube (February 2, p. 324).

in proving the existence of chemical reactions al The minutes of evidence, the reports on the various districts, and the appendices, on

high temperatures, the idea being that by suddenlı roolwhich the commissioners' conclusions were based

ing a gaseous system there would not be time for the pr.

have now been issued. The district reports contain much in

combination of the gases, and hence that some clur could

be obtained as to the actual composition of the gaseous formation of great value, and it is satisfactory to find that, in order to render them generally accessible, they quartz have led M. Berthelot to repeat these experiments

mixture at the high temperature. The properties of fused are issued separately at moderate prices. The contents of the various parts are as follows :--part ii., report of

under different conditions, and an account of the spouiti

is given in the Comptes rendus for April 3. The subSir W. T. Lewis on the available coal resources of South Wales and the south of England ; part iii., report of Prof.

stances under examination were enclosed in hermetually

sealed quartz tubes, heated for about an hour at 130 Lapworth and Mr. A. Sopwith on the coal resources of

to 1400° C., and then suddenly cooled by dropping the the midlands; part iv., report of Prof. E. Hull, Sir G. J.

tubes into cold water. The cooling in this way was at Armytage, and Mr. A. Strahan on the coal resources of

least as sudden as in Sainte-Claire Deville's experiments, North Wales, Lancashire, and Cheshire; part v., report

and the whole contents of the tubes could then be of Mr. A. Currer Briggs on the coal resources of York

amined. The observations were too numerous to be given shire, Derbyshire, and Nottinghamshire; part vi., report in detail here, but the whole trend of the results was to of Sir Lindsay Wood on the coal resources of Northumber

show that no dissociation could be detected in cases where land, Durham, and (umberland ; part vii., report of Mr. J. S. Dixon on the coal resources of Scotland ; part viii.,

from the earlier experiments a positive result would bor ej

pected. Oxygen furnished no trace of ozone, and no traer report of Prof. E. Hull on the coal resources of Ireland ;

of hydrocarbon could be formed from carbon, in any of its and part ix., report of the geological committee, consisting of Prof. E. Hull, Prof. C. Lapworth, Mr. J. J. H. Teall,

states, with hydrogen. The dissociation of carbun mon.

oxide was practically inappreciable, and in a case of procul and Mr. l. Strahan, on the resources of the concealed and

practical importance, the dissociation of carbon dioxid unproved coalfields of the United Kingdom. which covers 400 pages, contains the minutes of evidence,

and in which two experiments were made, one with stun

and the other with instantaneous cooling, no trace of disand part xi. includes a series of appendices of great

sociation could be detected.



Part X.,



[ocr errors]



[ocr errors]


[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

& BOOKLET on Pattern Making," by Mr. J. E. Danger- The following magnitudes have been estimated by

various observers at the times named :field, has been added by Messrs. Dawbarn and Ward,


mag. Ltd., to their “ Home Workers' Series of Practical Hand

March 28 7 596 (Geneva M.T.) II'5 books.'

8 28'2 (Vienna

13'0 A NEW edition of Mr. W. Woods Smyth's Divine Dual


9 6'3 (Bamberg Government has been published by Messrs. Horace On the last mentioned date Prof. Hartwig found that Marshall and Son. The present issue has been revised

the comet was circular, about 3' in diameter, and had a

scattered nucleus. and illustrated with new matter, some of which has already

VARIABILITY appeared in earlier books, now out of print, by the same

A MixOR PLANET.-A telegram from author.

Prof. Pickering, published in No. 4009 of the Astrono

mische Nachrichten, announces that Prof. Wendell has Messrs. LONGMANS, GREEN AND Co. have published a discovered a variation of 0.5 magnitude in the brightness new edition of Telegraphy," by Sir W. H. Preece, of the minor planet (15) Eunomia.


This is one K.C.B., F.R.S., and Sir J. Sivewright, K.C.M.G.

the asteroids situated at an intermediate book has been revised and enlarged, and now includes

distance from the sun, and having a revolution period of

1570 days. descriptions of recent devices used in telegraphy, in relation to fast-speed recorders, to automatic and translating


further visual observation of Jupiter's sixth satellite has apparatus for submarine circuits, to Murray's improve

been made at the U.S. Naval Observatory with the 26-inch ments in the Wheatstone automatic apparatus, and to the refractor. new telegraph switching system. A chapter on wireless Observing on January 8, Mr. Hammond made a search telegraphy considered theoretically and in its most recent for the recently discovered satellite in the position comapplication has been added.

puted from the Lick photographs, and there found a very

faint object, which, from its movement in relation to a MR. HENRY FROWDE has sent us two pages of the New

neighbouring star, proved to be the object sought. English Dictionary on Historical Principles," edited by

REAL PATH OF A BRIGHT METEOR.--From a large number Dr. J. A. H. Murray, to show how the word refraction of observations made in south-west Germany, Herr H. and its congeners are defined and traced. The number Rosenberg has calculated the real path of an exceptionally of references to uses of these words is astonishing ; and

bright meteor which was seen at Sh. 22m. (central Eurovast amount of research must have been necessary to

pean time) on March 21, 1904, and emitted about one

quarter of the light given by the moon at full. bring so much material together. We extract a few early

After giving the details of the times and places of the references of historical interest :-REFRACTING, causing re- various observations, he deduces the following values for fraction, refractive; 1704, Newton, Optics" (1721), the actual path of the object. Length of path 385 km., 4 def. iv., the perpendicular to the reflecting or refracting

duration of flight about 9 seconds, mean velocity 42.8 km. surface at the point of incidence"; 1764, Hornsby, in Phil.

per second, mean velocity relative to the earth 41.4 km. 1 rans., liv., 145, an excellent refracting telescope of

per second. The average absolute height of the path

above the earth's surface was about 30 km. Other de12 feet focus." REFRACTION; 1603, Holland, Plutarch's ductions are made concerning the actual size, brightness, Mor.," 1295,

“ the rainbow is distinguished by sundry parabolic velocity in space and actual path, and the followcolours, by the refraction of our eie-sight against a cloud”;

ing value is obtained for the radiant point :-long. = 23° 8',

lat. = +9° 10' (.Istronomische Nachrichten, No. 4008). 1046, Sir T. Browne, Pseud. Ep.,” 347, “ the colours are made by refraction of light, and the shadows that limit

A NEW 24-Inch REFLECTOR AT HARVARD.-In No. 93 of that light”; Astron. : 1603, Heydon, “Jud. Astrol.,

the Harvard College Observatory Circulars Prof. E. C. 137,

Pickering announces that the construction of the " there lieth a deceipt or fallacie in the refraction of beams, 24-inch reflector-one of the chief acquisitions with the which cheifly happeneth about the horizon, where the aire Anonymous Fund of 1902-is now so far advanced that the is alwaies thickest "; 1669, Sturmy, Mariner's Mag., ii., instrument may be used for visual observations. The 118, “the refraction of the sun, moon and stars, causeth

mirror was made by Messrs. Alvan Clark and Sons, and

the mounting has been designed and constructed in the them to appear higher above the horizon than they are."

observatory workshop. REFRACTIVE; 1673, Flamsteed, in Rigaud's “ Corr. Sci. Magnitude observations of three of the variable stars Men (1841), ii., 168, the refractive air reaches some discovered by Miss Leavitt near the Orion nebula have height above our heads”; a 1691, Boyle, “Hist. Air"

been made with this instrument, and their variability con(1092), 190, the air was filled with vapours and

firmed, by Mr. L. Campbell, and the results are set out in

detail in the Circular. exhalations, that made it much

refractive than

STARS with Variable Radial V'ELOCITIES.-A list of nine formerly."

spectroscopic binaries discovered with the Mills spectro

graph, in addition to the forty-eight previously announced, OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN.

is given in No. 70 of the Lich Observatory Bulletins. Amongst them

find Andromeda, which (OMET 1903 a (GIACOBINI).--A further extract from Dr.

announced as a binary by Mr. Slipher in 1904, and which Stromgren's daily ephemeris for comet 1905 a, as pub- the Lick spectrograms Show to have a negative radial lished in No. 4009 of the Astronomische Nachrichten, is velocity varying from 2 km. (October 5, 1903) to 36 km. given below. A set of elements and an ephemeris similar (November 30, 1903). Ceti has a small but undoubtedly to those obtained by Dr. Strömgren have been computed real variation, whilst y Geminorum shows a variation from at the U.S. Naval Observatory, from observations made - 17 km. (on October 24, 1809) to -4.7 km. (on January on March 26, 27, and 28, and are published in the same 27, 1904). Twenty-five spectrograms of the brighter comjournal.

ponent of Castor, a Geminorum, indicate a variation of Ephemeris 12h. (Berlin M.T.).

about 26 km. in the radial velocity. Applying the values 1905


logr log A Bright determined to Prof. Doberck's orbit of Castor, a preh. m

liminary value of 0.05 is found for the parallax of this April 15 7 8 22 + 33 479 0'0590 ... 9.8855 ... 0:87

.7 18 24

star; but this has not very great weight, owing to the
+35 386
7 28 42

uncertainty in the elements of the visual system. +37 227 ... 0'0638 ... 9.8988 ... 0.80

with a period of several years, & Serpentis with a prob+35 59.8 23

ably short period, s Lyrie, Sagittarii, and 71. Aquila 7 50 6

•+ 40 29.8 ... O'0699 ... 9'9139 ... 0*73 are the other stars for which variable radial velocities have Brightness at time of discovery (March 26) = 1.0. been discovered.

[ocr errors]





[ocr errors]





m Böotis



7 39 16

[merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]

Figuig and Beni-Ounif, in Sahara. The drawings are in so, the question arises, did the inspiration of the South deep outline and of large size, sometimes life-size, and their Oranais engraving come from Egypt, or had the god antiquity is established by the patina in the cuts being as Ammon a Libyan origin? The goat (Ovis longipes) of pronounced as that on the surface, and by the fact that Zenaga differs in some details from those of Bou-Alem, and

the “ solar disc " is provided with rays. The other drawings of this problematic design were exhibited at the International Congress of Anthropology of 1900, and gave rise to a long discussion.

Rock carvings of a very different character were discovered by the author in the Touareg (Tawarek) country on the first slopes of the Hoggar (Ahaggar) massif, 200-300 kilometres south of In Salah. Some are scribblings in which animals and men are represented diagrammatically, and with these inscriptions are associated. M. Flamand some time ago described entirely similar graffiti in South Oranais which he identified as “Libyco-berbères." The greater part of the figures in this paper illus trate engravings of a very different character, and are far less ancient than those just referred to, for the animals represented are forms that still exist there. The presence of the camel is very significant, since it is generally admitted that it was only introduced, or re-introduced into north-west Africa in the first centuries of our era, and appears to have been abundant there about the period of Justinian. Other animals

represented are the horse, ass, cattle, Rock carving from Zenaga. Dimension, i metre from the head to the tail.

goat, moufflon, gazelle, dog, ostrich, the design left wbite is carefully polished in the original.

&c. The engraved portions differ in

their colour markedly from the rest some of the animals represented, such as the elephant, no of the rock, and lack patina. From their appearance, longer exist there, while others, like the buffalo, are now these petroglyphs may be recent, but it has been denied extinct. In Fig. I we have two recognisable portraits of that they have any relation with the Touaregs. Direct Bubalus antiquus and one of an elephant. Several South evidence is afforded by the representations of men instead

[ocr errors]
« PreviousContinue »