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In the summer months (May, June, and July) the temperature lowest values being those for Valencia and Falmouth, no doubt curve during the day hours, from 8 a, m. to sp.m., hardly due to their position on the sea coast, for which stations the differs from a curve of sines, the first component being more means for the years are 2° 28 and 2* *35 compared with 5'10 than ten times as large as any of the others, which therefore at Greenwich. influence the temperature, relatively, very little.

The Kew values most resemble those at Greenwich, bat the The relation of the epoch of the first maximum of the com mean maximum at Kew is more than 1° less, and the mean for ponent of the third order to the time of sunrise is decidedly the year less. marked, the former occurring, on the average, about 12°, or / The mean values of Hy for the seven observatories lie be48m. after sunrise ; the mean deviation of the interval from that tween 2059 and 220°, that for Greenwich being 214. The amount being only 7", or 28ın.

means of tbe summer values are about 3 or 4' less than the The periodical variation in the position of the maximum leads, mean of the year, and of the winter values as much above it. during ihe winter months, to a positive maximum of this com- i as in the case of Greenwich. ponent about i p.m., which is combined with negative maxima The amplitude of the first component conforms approxifour hours earlier and later, which correspond to the riduced mately, but not so closely as at Greenwich, with the sine of temperature in the mornings and afternoons of the shorter days. I the un's meridian altitude, but with a flattening of the curve In like manner, in the summer months, when this component in the summer months, and a tendency at some of the stations has a negative maximum about i p.m., instead of a negative to a maximum value in May. minimum, as in winter, there will be two positive maxima, one The components of the second and third orders, beyond which four hours earlier, the other sour hours later, corresponding to the the analyis is not carried for these observatories, conformn in all higher temperature in the mornings and afternoons of the longer | important respects to those for Greenwich, the numerical valdays.

ues of the latter being, however, in all cases somewhat higher. It will be seen that these positions of the midsummer and mid- | The epochs of maximum follow the same laws, with an increased winter maximum phases correspond respectively to days of 16 divergence of the summer epoch from that of the winter at the hours with nights of 8 hours, or days of 8 hours and nights of more northern stations. 16 hours, and that at these seasons, when the variations of tem- | In order to test, and in some degree throw light, on the charperature, due to these differences, are greatest, the amplitudes of acter and significance of the harmonic components of temperature this component are also the greatest. At the equinoxes, with that have been under discussion, and bearing in mind that they 12-hour days and nights, the component becomes a minimum ; cannot be considered to represent separate effects of physical and at this season the change in the position of the maximum forces operating at the assumed periods of the components, I takes place as already noticed.

have, at the suggestion of Prof. G. Darwin, calculated the It might be supposed that an analogous relation between the harmonic components from a curve representing an intermittent fourth component and the occurrence of days of 18 hours, com | heating action such as that of the sun, continued only during a bined with nights of 6 hours, and vice versa, is likely to arise. 1 portion of the day, and commencing and ending abruptly at But the data are not forthcoming to test this.

sunrise and sunset. In the summer months the time of mean temperature is nearly All cooling effects have been disregarded, and the sun's direct where the first component becomes zero, the second and third heating action is assumed to be proportional to the sine of his components then balancing one another.

altitude, the power of a vertical sun being taken to he to. Har. In the winter the time of morning mean temperature is later ing calculated the sun's altitude for each hour of the day, for than in summer, and occurs when a positive value of the first midwinter, the equinox, and midsummer, for certain selected component is equal to a negative value of the second.

latitudes, the corresponding heating effects have been computed The time of afternoon mean temperature throughout the year to which the usual method of analysis has been applied. is somewhat either before or after 7 p.m., and almost exactly The comparison of the results thus obtained with the cortecoincides with the time when the first and second components sponding components derived from actual observation at places are equal, with opposite signs.

having nearly the same latitudes as those selected, establishes In the summer the time of absolute minimum is between the their close similarity, and the conclusion is unavoidable, that, hours of 3 a.m. and 6 a.m., during which the whole of the although both in the actual and hypothetical cases the harmonicomponents are negative.

components when combined are truly representative of the pecuSunrise in December is about an hour and a half before the liar forms of the curves from which they were derived, this afford: time of mean temperature ; while in June it is more than four no evidence of the existence of recurring cycles of action cor. hours earlier.

responding to the different components, but that the results are, Sunset in December is rather more than three hours before the to a great extent, due to the form of the analysis. time of mean temperature ; in June it is about half an hour after The diurnal curve of temperature is not symmetrical in rela. that time.

tion to the mean value, the maximum day temperature being The rationale of some of the empirical rules for obtaining the much more in excess than the minimum night temperature is in mean daily temperature from a limited number of observations defect. To adjust the first component, which is symmetrical is supplied by reference to the harmonic expressions for the about its mean value, to the actual unsymmetrical curve, i: hourly deviations of temperature from the mean value.

must be modified by the other components. That of the second In the first place, it will be seen that by adding together the order, which has one of its maxima not far removed from the harmonic expressions for any two hours twelve hours apart, the minimum of the first order, supplies the chier portion of the whole of the odd components disappear, and that the sum is compensation due to this cause. twice the mean value, added to twice the sum of the even com Further, from the character of the analysis, when the diurnal ponents of the selected hours, which are equal.

curve is symmetrical on eitber side of the hour half way between By taking the mean of observations at any four hours, at noon and midnight-that is, when the day and night are equal intervals of six hours, both the odd components and those of in length-the third component becomes zero. Any departure the second order will disappear, and the result will only differ from this symmetry introduces a component of the third order, from the true mean by the amount of the fourth component for with the result that with a day shorter than 12 hours one maxithe selected hours.

mum will fall in the day between 6 a, m. and 6 p.m., and the So, if the mean of any three hours at equal intervals of eight other two in the night between 6 p.m. and 6 a.tn. ; while with hours be taken, the sums of the first, second, and fourth com a day longer than 12 hours, two maxima will occur in the day ponents will disappear, and the result will only differ from the and only one in the night. In the former case the negative portrue mean by the amount of the third component for the selected tions of the component correspond with the reduced morving hours, which in no case can be so much as .

and afternoon temperatures of the short day, and in the latter

the two positive phases correspond with the higher temperature 2. Temperature at the Seven Observatories.

of the mornings and afternoons of the longer day.

These conclusions are in conformity with those previously The examination of the tables will show that in their main indicated. characteristics the results closely resemble those for Greenwich, The available data are insufficient to enable us to say whether and it will not be necessary to discuss them in any detail. the corresponding results connected with the fourth component

The amplitude of the component of the first order is, how. | are as fully supported by observation as in the case of the third, ever, in all cases less than that observed at Greenwich, the but the facts so far as they go confirm this view.

Anthropological Institute, April 11.-Prof. A. Macalister, nodular limestone-bands.—This paper gave rise to a discussion President, in the chair.- Mr. G. M. Atkinson exhibited a in which the President, Prof. Hull, Mr. Walford, Prof. Judd, craniun and several metal ornaments found by Mr. A. Michell General McMahon, Prof. T. R. Jones, Prof. Hughes, Mr. H. Whitley and Dr. Talfourd Jones in a grave at Birling, near W. Monckton, Dr. G. H. Hinde, and the author took part. Eastbourne, Sussex. The peculiar coffin-like shape of the skull On some Bryozoa from the Inferior Oolite of Shipton Gorge, seemed to point to its belonging to the early Saxon period, Dorset, Part II., by Edwin A. Walsord. while the metal ornaments were assigned to the late Roman or Royal Meteorological Society, April 19.- Dr. C. Theoimmediately post-Roman age. -Mr. R. Duckworth read a paper

dore Williams, President, in the chair. — The following papers on two skulls from Nagyr, recently added to the Cambridge University collection. One of them is a female skull, and is

were read :- The direction of the wind over the British Isles, remarkably dolichocephalic, the cephalic index being 69'94.

1876-80, by Mr. F. C. Bayard. This is a reduction on an The other skull is that of an adult male.-Prof. Macalister read

| unisorm plan of the observations made twice a day, mostly at a paper on Egyptian mummies. He described the manner in

9 a.m. and 9 p.m., at seventy stations during the lustrum 1876

180; and the results are given in tables of inonthly and yearly which they were prepared, the unguents used by the Egyptians and the various cloths in which the mummies were rolled.

percentages.- Notes on two photographs of lightning taken at

Sydney Observatory, December 7, 1892, by Mr. H. C. He explained the difference between the Egyptian cloths and those manufactured in England at the present day, and said that

Russell, F.R.S. These photographs were taken with a halfthe object of using so few threads in the weaving was for the pur

plate view lens, mounted in a whole plate camera, and, as a

matter of course, there is some distortion at the edges. Both pose of saving time and trouble. The material at the same time

photographs show the gaslights in the streets as white specks, was brought to a high state of perfection as a manufacture, and

the specks being circular in the centre and crescent-shaped in indeed might even compare with some of the finest linen pro

other parts of the plate owing to distortion. The lightning ductions at the present day. Specimens of cloth were exhibited

flashes are also distoried. Mr. Russell believes that this distorand the author stated, on the authority of a linen manufacturer,

tion may account for the so-called “ribbon ” flashes, which are that there was only one specimen of linen manufacture in the United Kingdom which could be recognised as of similar

seen in many photographs of lighịning. He has also made some structure to the Egyptian productions.-A paper on Damma

measurements of the length and distance of the flashes, and of Island and its natives by P. W. Bassett Smith, R.N., was also

the intensity of the light.-Notes on lightning discharges in the read.

neighbourhood of Bristol, 1892, by Dr. E. H. Cook. The

author gives some particulars concerning two trees in Tyntesfield Geological Society, April 12.-W. H. Hudleston, F.R.S., Park, which were struck by lightning, one on June i and the President, in the chair. - The following communications were other on July 18, and also some notes concerning a flagstaff on read :--On soine Palæozoic Ostracoda from Westmoreland, by the summit of Brandon Hill, which was struck on October 6. — Prof. T. Rupert Jones, F.R.S. In 1865 the author determined Constructive errors in some hygrometers, by Mr. W. W. for Prof. Harkness some fossil Ostracoda which he had obtained Midgley. The author, in making an investigation into the from the Lower Silurian rocks of South East Cumberland and hygrometrical condition of a number of cotton mills in the Bolton North-East Westmoreland, and subsequently other specimens district, found that the mounting of the thermometers and the mentioned by Harkness and Nicholson in 1872. In 1891 Prof. position of the water receptacle did not by any means conform Nicholson and Mr. Marr submitted a series of similar microzoa to the regulations of the Royal Meteorological Society, and were from the same district; and the author now endeavours to de so arranged that they gave the humidity results much too high. termine their specific alliances, and revises the list of those pre The Cotton Factories Act of 1889 prescribes the maximum viously collected. He has to notice about eleven forms of weight of vapour per cubic foot of air at certain temperatures ; Primitia, Beyrichia, Ulrichia, Æchmina, and Cytherella--several and the author points out that if the instruments for determining of them being closely allied as varieties, but all worthy of study the amount present in the mills have an error of 20 per cent. as biological groups, such as have been illustrated from other against the interests of the manufacturer, it is necessary that the regions by writers on the Ostracoda, with the view of the exact makers of the mill hygrometers should adopt the Royal Meteordetermination, if possible, of species and genera, of their local and ological Society's pattern for the purpose. more distant or regional distribution, and of their range in time. -On some Palæozoic Ostracoda from the Girvan district in

PARIS. Ayrshire, by Prof. T. Rupert Jones, F.R.S. This paper aims! Academy of Sciences, April 17.-M. Lowy in the chair. at the completion of the palæontological account of the Girvan -Note on the observation of ihe partial eclipse of the sun of district, so far as the Ostracoda are concerned ; and follows up 1 April 16, 1893, by M. F. Tisserand.-On the observation the researches indicated in the “Monograph of the Silurian of the total eclipse of the 16th inst., by M. J. Janssen. — Fossils of the Girvan District in Ayrshire," by Nicholson and Effects of the drought upon this year's crops ; reply to Etheridge, vol. i., 1880. In about a dozen pieces of the fossili. M. Demontzey's note on the planting of the highlands, ferous shales, submitted for examination some few years ago, ! by M. Chambrelent.-Expansion of water at constant the writer finds nearly thirty specimens of Primitia, Beyrichia, pressure and at consiant volume, by M. E. H. Amagat. At Ulrichia, Sulcuna, and Cypridina which show interesting pressures higher than 200 atmospheres water has no maximum gradations of form, not always easy to be defined as specific or density above zero. At the lower temperatures, contrary to even varietal, but valuable as illustrating modifications during what takes place in the case of other liquids, the coefficient of the life-history of individuals, thus often leading to permanent expansion increases with the pressure. This increase is grad. characteristics of species and genera. Like those formerly de- ually effaced as the temperature rises, is sensibly zero at 50° or scribed in Nicholson and Etheridge's "Monograph," the '60°, and changes sign for higher temperatures. If water is kept specimens have all been collected by Mrs. Elizabeth Gray, of at a constant volume the pressure increases rapidly with the temEdinburgh.—The reading of these papers was followed by a perature. Thus, for unit volume the coefficient of pressure discussion, in which the President, Mr. Marr, and the author increases fourfold between 10° and 100°, and the variation is took part.-On the dwindling and disappearance of limestones, proportionately even more rapid between oo and 10°.-On the by Frank Rutley. The existerce of chert between two sheets structure of simple finite and continued groups, by M. Cartan. of eruptive rocks at Mullion I-land seemed to the author to re -On a simple group with fourteen parameters, by M. F. quire some explanation. Cherts are usually associated with Engel. --Demonstration of the transcendental nature of the limestones, and the absence of limestones in many cases where number é, by M. Adolf Hurwitz. - Comparison of the intercherts are found points to their removal by underground waters. national meter with the wave-length of cadmium light, by M. The older the limestone the greater the probability of its thick. Albert A. Michelson.-Photography of gratings engraved upon ness having dwindled. The thicknesses of the Ordovician, metal, by M. Izarn. It is possible to reproduce opaque gratSilurian, Devonian, and Carbouiferous Limestones seem to be ings engraved upon metal in a manner analogous to the reproin the ratio of 1:15:15: 100. Many limestones once existing duction of transparent ones already described. On covering in Archæan rocks may have disappeared, as also limestones in such a grating with a layer of bichromated gelatine, and expos: later rocks. The author comments on the difficulty of distin- ing to the sun through this layer, a grating effect is produced guishing some cherty rocks from felstones. Two appendices are | which, although rather feeble, is due to successive differences of added to the paper, the first on the tra isference of lime from structure corresponding to the rulings. These differences of older to newer deposits, and the second on the formation of structure are probably due to stationary reflected waves, and Hoogv: No. 2(Leydenhe Royal Microscopia (Longmans). Rec

need not necessarily be alternations of transparency and opacity in solution. This point is a minimum temperature. Besides, order to produce the desired effect. Very close contact between there are two ciyohydratic lines, representing the series of solu

In the film and the grating is essential. -On atmospheric polarisa. ; tions which may exist with ice and A or ice and B as solids. tion, by M. A. Hurion.-Researches on the higher alcohols i

the other cases when A and B form a double salt D, there are two and other impurities in vinic alcohol, by M. Émile Gossart.

cryohydratic points, one for the solution in equilibrium with On the general relations which exist between the coefficients in ice + D + A, the other for ice + D + B; and three cryothe fundamental laws of electricity and magnetism, by M. E.

hydratic lines for the solutions in equilibrium with ice + D. Mercadier.-On the reflection of electric waves at the end of ice + A, ice + B. When the double salt is soluble without a linear conductor. by M. Birkeland -Multiplication of the decomposition, the two cryohydratic points are both minimum number of periods of sinusoidal currents, by M. Désiré Korda. -- i temperatures, and therefore there must exist a maximum tempeOn the hygroscopic properties of several textile fabrics. by M. Th. rature on the line for ice + D; this maximum relates to the Schlesing hils. --Contribution to the study of the Lecianché cell. solution which presents the same relation A/B as in the double by M. A, Ditte. -Attempt at a general method of chemical syo.

salt. All these conclusions may be deduced from thermoe thesis ; formation of nitrogen compounds, by M. Raoul Pictet. dynamical rules ; they were conhrmed in experimental research

-On the stereochemistry of the malic compounds, and the by Mr. Schreinemakers.
variation of the rotatory power of liquids, by M. Albert Colson.
-On a chlorobromide of iron, by M. Lenormand.-On the

| BOOKS, PAMPHLETS, and SERIALS RECEIVED. saccharates of lime, by M. Petit.-On a new soluble ferment

BOOKS.-Carlsbad, a Medico-Practical Guide : Dr. E. Kleen (Putnam). doubling trehalose into glucose, by M. Em. Bourquelot.-On

Louis Agassiz, his Life and Work : Dr. Holder (Putpam).- Die Natürliche the circulatory apparatus of Mygale Camentaria, Walck, by M. Auslese beim Menschen: O. Ammon (ena, Fischer). - Public Health Marcel Causard. - Influence of the pressure of gases upon the Laboratory Work: H. R. Kenwood (Lewis).- Annual Statement of Worlas development of vegetables, by M. Paul Jaccard. - On the

carried out by Public Works Department (Sydney, Potter). - The Principles

of Agriculture: G.Fletcher (Derby, Central Educational Company). - Science ammonite layers of the inferior Malm in the county of Monte

et Religion : T. H. Huxley (Paris, Bailllère).-Au Bord de la Mer : Dr. junta, Portugal; little known phases in the development of the E. L. Trouessart (Paris, Baillière.-Conférences Scientifiques et Allocs mollusca, by M. Paul Choffat.-On the mode of reproduction tions-Constitution de la Mauere : Lord Kelvin. Traduites et Annotées of the parasites of cancer, by MM. Armand Ruffer and H. G.

sur la Deuxième Edition : P, Lugol and M. Brillouin (Paris, Gauthier.

Villars). - Premiers Principes d'Électricité Industrielle : P. Janet (Paris, Plimmer.-M. Lippmann presented to the Academy, in the

Gauthier-Villars).-The Gieat Barrier Reef of Australia: W Saville Kent names of MM. Auguste and Louis Lumière, coloured photo (W. H. Allen). graphs obtained by the interference method.

PAMPHLETS.-Meteorological Results deduced from Observations taken

at the Liverpool Observatory during the Years 1889, 1890 1891 (Liverpool). BERLIN.

On the Effects of Urban Fog upon Cltivated Plants : Prof. F. W. Ohver

(Spottiswoode).--The Fundamental Hypotheses of Abstract Dynamics : Physical Society, March 10.-Prof. Kundt, President, in

Prof. J. G. MacGregor.--Il Clima di Torino: G B Rizzo (1 or no, Clausen.the chair.— The President gave an account of some re-earches On the Application of Interference Methods to Spectroscopic Measure undertaken as an introduction to the study of Hall's phenomenon.

ments: A. A. Michelson (Washington, Smithsonian Institution).-Recea.

tion : W. Odell (Torquay, Iredale) As is well known, this is directly proportional to the intensity of

Serials.-- Journal of the Chemical Society, April (Gurney and Jackson). the primary current, but inversely proportional to the pressure Annalen des k. k. Naturhist. rischen Hofmuseums, Band vist No. (Wiers, of the plates ; on the other hand, it is not strictly proportional

Holder).-Timehri, No. xxii. (Stanford) -Notes from the Leyden Museum. to the magnetising current in the case of the several metals so

vol. xv. No. 2(Leyden, Brill).- L'Anthropologie, tome iv. No. 1 (Paris,

Masson).-Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society, Apnl (Williams far examined, and it appeared probable that it might more pos and Norgale).- The Asclepiad, No. 37. vol. x (Longmans).- Records of sibly be proportional rather to the magnetisation of the plate. the Geological Survey of India, vol. xxvi. Part 1 (Calcutta). Prof. Kundt wished to test this possibility in the case of iron, nickel, and cobalt, employing transparent metallic films of these

CONTENTS.

PAGE metals magnetised to 28,000 units, whose magnetisation could be tested directly by means of their rotatory power. It was

Dynamics in Nubibus.

By W. N. P. ....... found that the Hall effect increased hand in hand with the in. | Vertebrate Biology. crease of rotatory power, and therefore proportionally to the magnetisation of the plates. The effect was, as Hall had already

Marilaun: “Pflanzenleben."-D. H. S...... shown, positive in the case of iron and cobalt, negative in that

Giacosa : “ Bibliografia Medica Italiana" .. of nickel. Bismuth deposited electrolytically in a transparent

Balfour : “ The Evolution of Decorative Art" ... film gave very feeble or no results, whereas, when drawn out

Letters to the Editor :into a thin plate the effect was considerable. -Dr. Wren spoke

Paläontological Discovery in Australia.-Prof. Alfred on Maxwell's proposition that waves of light exert pressure in

Newton, F.R.S... the direction of their transmission, as proved in a certain case by Boltzmann. He deduced, under certain assumptions, a

H. Field . . . formula for the calculation of temperature based upon a deter

Lion 'iger and Tiger-lion Hybrids-Dr. v. Ball, mination of maximal energy.

Soot-figures on Ceilings. (Illustrated.)-E.B. Poul. AMSTERDAM.

ton, F.R.S.; Prof. Oliver Lodge, F.R.S... Royal Academy of Sciences, March 25.-Prof. van de The Use of Ants to Aphides and Coccidæ.-T. D. A. Sande Bakhuysen in the chair.-Mr. Pekelharing spoke of the

Cockerell ..... ........... peptone of Kühne. Some years ago he argued there was not a | Blind Animals in Caves.-G. A. Boulenger.... real difference be!ween the substances called pept: ne, and the Observations in the West Indies. By Prof. A. substance called propeptone or hemialbumose. The researches Agassiz. . of Kühne and his disciples afterwards proved that what was Artionyx-a Clawed Artiodactyle, (With Diagrams.) called peptone by Schmidt-Mülheim and by Salkowski, con- By Prof. Henry S. Osborn tained albumose. But it was not proved hy Kühne that the The Hodgkins Fund Prizes. By Prof. S. P. Langley 611 substance called by himself peptone was really free from albu- The Solar Eclipse ............... mose. Out of a solution of Kühne's peptone, saturated N es ...... with ammoniumsulphate, there can be precipitated hy meta. i Our Astronomical Column: phosphoric acid, and more fully by trichloracetic acil, a sub Large Telescnpes .........

616 stance which has the properties of albumose. It gives the Spectrum of Lyra....... biuretreacıion, it is precipitated, the reaction may be acid, Sociélé Astronomique de France..

616 neutral, or alkaline, by ammoniumsulphate, it is precipitated by Wolsingham Circular, No. 34

616 picrinic acid, and, in acid solution, by saturation with natrium

Astronomical Journal Prizes .....

616 chlorid. So it is clear that there is no ground for believing i Geographical Notes

· 617 with Kühne that the substance called by him peptone is a sub. i Institution of Mechanical Engineers stance sui generis, and not an impure albumo.e. -Mr. Bakhuis. Coni'ers. By G. N.

. 619 Roozeboom dealt with the cryohydrates in systems of two salts. The Earthquakes in Zante ....

.. 620 Three cases are to be considered. The first is that the two salts Scientific Serials

.. 620 may exist without combination. Then there is a cryohydratic Societies and Academies . point in which the two salts A and B exist with ice next the 'Books, Pamphlets, and Serials Received .. 624

An International Zoological Record. - Dr. Herbert

F.R.S. ..

611 S12

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617

cademies ....

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The Great Barrier Reef of Australia, represented by a vast rampart of
Essex FIELD CLUB (at Ilford), at 7.-On Mimicry in Lepidoptera and the
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