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in the plants of our own part of Europe since Glacial or of many of the monocotyledonous leaves - investigated pre-Glacial times.
Schwendener in his classical work. It will be remens. The conclusion follows that at any given time, apart that the cordaitean leaves were originally classed as 1 from the relatively short critical periods when changed of monocotyledons, which they closely resemble in fom. conditions had to be met, we must expect to find organisms and mechanical requirements. Here there is no seconds in a state of complete adaptation to their surroundings. growth to disturb the lines of a rational construction; -When physical, and especially mechanical, conditions are leaves were of great length and borne on- lofty , ste in question, such as have practically remained constant requiring a strong mechanical system for their SLPP through all geological time, we may reckon on finding and hence we find that they present admirable illustrativi the corresponding adaptive structures essentially the same of engineering principles. at the earliest periods as they are now.
Without pursuing the subject further, it may be adt, Hence the attempt to support the Darwinian theory by that other Palæozoic leaves show essentially
the: $2: the detection of imperfect mechanical adaptations in types of mechanical construction as are found in leaves Palæozoic plants is wholly futile, as was well shown by corresponding shape and dimensions in the living flora. the late Prof. Westermaier. This author's own point of These few illustrations may suffice to show that, irrview was not that of a Darwinian, but, nevertheless, his an engineering point of view, the plants of the Palæoz: conviction that efficient adaptation has always been were just as well constructed to resist the strains to what characteristic of living organisms is a perfectly sound one, their organs were exposed as are their recent successors. thoroughly in harmony both with the principles of Darwin I have elsewhere dwelt on the gradual change in e and Wallace, and with the observed facts, as far back, at construction of the wood, correlated with the on-com any rate, as the palæontological record extends.
of secondary growth, and have traced the slow extinct ticular, Westermaier's contention that the construction of of the old, cryptogamic,” centripetally developed word the Carboniferous plants followed the laws of mechanical as the newer, centrifugal wood, derived from a cambio.7, stability and economy of material, just as is the case in more and more effectually took its place. In the form plants of our own day, is completely confirmed by accurate we have to do with a structure becoming vestigial, but observations on their structure, while an opponent's sup- is interesting to note how the doomed tissue posed detection of Palæozoic constructions in direct con- always left in its old age to be a mere pensioner on tradiction to the principles of the engineer ” merely showed more active neighbours, but was often employed, hi! that the critic had failed to distinguish between the sup- it survived, on such work as it was still able to do. I porting and conducting tissues of the plant. It appears sind, in quite a number of cases, that the central 100 to have been characteristic of Palæozoic plants that their had changed its character, and shows by its structure it: mechanical tissues were, to a great extent, independent it had become adapted to the storage rather than to the of the wood and concentrated in the outer cortex-the transmission of the water-supply, its earlier function ro most advantageous position engineering principles. | being more conveniently left to the external parts of tă For example, the extremely prevalent Dictyoxylon type
wood. Such utilisation of vestigial structure appears :: of cortex, in which bands of strong, fibrous tissue, united be a good mark of a high standard of adaptation. to form a network, alternate with the living parenchyma Another interesting case of adaptive specialisation in 2 enclosed in their meshes, was an adinirable mechanical organ which may be regarded as of an old-fashioned typ construction for stems which did not attain any great is to be found in the rootlets of Stigmaria. . The nater: thickness by secondary growth.
of these appendages has been much disputed ; last yez! In the Calamites we find, in young stems, the same we had an interesting discussion on the subject, opened alternation of fibrous and parenchymatous bands in the by Prof. Weiss. I have used the word “ old-fashioned cortex, which is so familiar to physiological anatomists because there is some reason to suppose that these orgar: in the stems of our living horsetails.
were not yet quite sharply differentiated as roots; at an The great tree-ferns of the later Carboniferous (if ferns rate, there are certain points in which they rather resem.they were) evidently depended for their mechanical strength modified leaves, though in my opinion the root-character on a stereome or supporting tissue quite distinct from the predominate. Though they may thus be “ primitive, vascular system, and for the most part peripherally dis- from the point of view of our current morphological posed, as it should be. Their power of resistance to categories, these organs, as Prof. Weiss has discovered bending strains was no doubt greatly increased by the show a remarkable, adaptive mechanism in the present dense external envelope of strongly constructed adventitious of strands of water-conducting elements running out fra roots, imbedded in the cortex, a mode of support which the central vascular bundle, and terminating in plates e we meet with in some monocotyledons such as Kingia tracheæ placed in the outer cortex. The whole constitute: (Liliacea) and species of Puya (Bromeliaceae) at the
an absorptive apparatus more claborate than anythin present day.
found in recent roots, if we except a few highly specialiset When we come to the most highly organised of the haustorial roots of parasites. This example seems to 114 Palæozoic plants, the Cordaitales, constituting
the instructive, for it shows how a very high degree of adaptá: characteristic gymnosperms of that epoch, we find that tion may co-exist with characters which suggest a the young stems had the same Dictyoxylon
what archaic type of organ. tion of the cortex as
common among the con- As an example of adaptation to more special conditions temporary fern-like seed-plants. The cordaitean wood, I may instance the xerophytic characters shown by various however, often assumed a dense structure, and in many Carboniferous plants, especially in the structure of their cases (as also sometimes occurred among the pterido- | leaves. sperms) there were tangential bands of narrow fibre-like Though there is no question of absolute perfection in wood-elements, suggesting, though not identical with, the nature, it appears that, under given conditions, adaptation autumn wood of recent coniferous trees, and no doubt is and was sufficiently perfect to make it very difficu.* subserving a special mechanical function.
to put one's finger on any defect. When we think we can The exigencies of secondary growth, when occurring do so, it generally turns out that the defect is in the min? on a great scale, ultimately demand that the mechanical of the critic rather than in the organism criticised. Mi tissues should be seated in the wood, on the inner side will take a particular case, where the history seems in of the growing zone, though this is not the best position give some justification for our fault-finding. on engineering principles. The old plants were, on the The late Palæozoic family Medulloseæ were in whole, more correct in their methods; their successors
respects the most remarkable plants, from an anatomical have more often had to adopt a compromise, which point of view, that we know of. Most of them were sacrifices a certain degree of mechanical efficiency in order plants of great size, with rather sturdy stems bearing to facilitate construction,
immense fern-like fronds; the habit altogether must have In the leaves of the Cordaiteæ we meet with remarkably been something like that of a tree-fern, but their repre perfect types of mechanical construction showing various duction was by large seeds, borne on the fronds. To applications of the l-girdle principle, with utilisation of the “ web ” for the protection of the conducting vascular
1 Scott, “The Old Wood and the New " (Veu Phytologist, vol. i., 19021 strands. The construction is on the same lines as that
2 Megaloxylon, Zalesskya, Lepidodendron selaginoides.
adapt the vascular system of the stem to the supply of the simultaneous with that of the higher families of insects, large and compound leaves, the polystelic type of struc- which now, at all events, are chiefly concerned in pollinature was assumed, i.e. the single vascular cylinder (still tion. It would be difficult to overestimate the importance to be recognised in some of the earlier members of the of these relations in their effect on the flora of the world. group) became broken up, in various ways, into a number If the vegetation of our own epoch appears, on the whole, of distinct cylinders, only connected at intervals. So far definitely more advanced than that of earlier gcological the change was in the same general direction as in the periods, this is probably due in a greater degree to the evolution of the higher ferns; the fossil family, however, contemporary insect life than to any other cause. was not content with a complex primary vascular system, I have discussed the subject of reduction in evolution but must have secondary growth as well.
Now if you
elsewhere, and will only briefly allude to it here. In have a number of vascular columns in the same stem, each many groups (Lycopods, equisetales, cycadophytes) there growing continuously in thickness on its own account, it has been a lowering of the standard of organisation, partly is evident that very special arrangements will be necessary due to direct reduction, partly to the extinction of the to avoid overcrowding. The difficulty was overcome, and higher forms in each group. There are, however, many the Medullosede for some time flourished among the other cases in which the simplification of particular organs dominant families—the Permian formation represents their means a real advance.
But one is tempted to think that the system Taking into account all the causes which make for was too complicated to last; at any rate, it seems not simplification, the question suggests itself whether, when to have lasted, for these elaborate stems have not been we find a simple type of structure existing at the present found in any later rocks. Either, as Mr. Worsdell sup- day, there is any presumption in favour of its primitive poses, the medullosean stem became reduced and simplified nature. It has sometimes been urged that such a preto form the cycadean type of stem of later days, or, as sumption exists (except when direct evidence of reduction 1 more inclined
to believe, the family died can be adduced) on the ground that the general course of altogether. Even here, though we
to have an evolution must have been from the simpler to the more instance of a cumbrous mechanism, over-reaching itself in complex, a rule, as we have seen, subject to so many elaboration, yet it worked well enough for a time, and it exceptions that, within the limited period to which the would be diflicult to say exactly what the conditions were palæontological record extends, it has practically no that led to its being superseded.
validity. My own conviction is that in such cases there The hypothesis of a gradual development from the is no presumption of primitiveness at all, and that we simpler to the more complex is not borne out by the should demand very strong evidence before admitting that facts of palæobotany-the real
a given simple structure is primitive. Of course, it may infinitely niore involved. On a general view, as Darwin happen that a primitive simple type, or at least an old himself recognised, “the geological record does not extend simple type, may have survived to our own day; this may far enough back to show with unmistakable clearness have been the case in decaying families, where the less that within the known history of the world organisation advanced members have had the best chance of evading has largely advanced.” 1 This wise saying has been too the competition of ascendant races ; but, on the whole, it often overlooked by those who have tried to popularise is very unlikely that, among all the changes and chances evolution-it is eminently true of the geological history of the world's history, a really primitive simplicity should of plants. Though there is no doubt a balance on the have been preserved. “ The eternal ages are long," and side of advance, due chiefly to the increasing complexity there has been time enough for many ups and downs on of the inter-relations among the organisms themselves, every line of descent. the general progress since Palæozoic days is by no means The subject of reduction, so essential a clue in any so great as has often been assumed, and we may be attempt to trace the course of evolution, suggests a refersure that as our knowledge of the older plants increases ence to the question of the simpler angiospermous flowers. we shall come to form a still higher estimate than we do While the older morphologists were wont to interpret such now of their adaptive organisation.
flowers (e.g. those of Aroideæ, Piperaceæ, Cupulifera) as It has been alleged that it is the fact of the gradual reductions from more “ perfect " types, there has been a appearance of higher forms which enables us to determine tendency in more recent times to accept the simpler flowers the relative age of strata by their fossils. So far as plants as primitive structures from which more elaborate forms are concerned, this statement is only true to a very limited have been evolved. Quite lately, however, a reaction has
A fossil angiosperm, no doubt, would be evidence set in, due to the discovery by Dr. Wieland of the of an age not earlier than the Cretaceous, but, on the wonderful bisexual powers of the Mesozoic cycadophyta, other hand, a lycopod of much higher organisation than which are constructed on the same plan (though, of course, present would establish
strong presumption of with many differences in detail) as the more perfect angiol'alæozoic age: so would the higher forms of the equise- spermous flowers, such as those of Magnoliaceæ. If the tales; a cycadophyte with a fructification far more elaborate angiospermous flower was derived from a source allied to than that of recent Cycadaceæ would afford sure proof the Bennettiteæ, its evolution, as suggested by Wieland, that the bed containing it belonged to the Lower Mesozoic. must have been essentially a process of reduction. I only
Of course, much depends on the meaning we give to wish to point out that this view is not inconsistent with the words higher" and lower.
higher the great relative antiquity of simple and, ex hypothesi, mean nearer to the recent types, then it is merely a truism reduced forms, for which, in the case of the Amentiferæ, to say that the higher forms are characteristic of the there seems to be good geological evidence. Reduction later rocks; but if by " higher " we mean more elaborately appears to have often been a rapid, indeed a comparatively differentiated, then the statement quoted is, in any general sudden, change, as shown by the frequent occurrence of sense,
untrue. If, again, we imply by the word “higher much-simplified forms in the same family in which the more perfectly adapted to the existing conditions, then it prevailing structure is typically complete. It appears quite would be very difficult to prove any advance, for, as I probable that some groups with very simple flowers, though have endeavoured to show, adaptation has in every age not “primitive," may be very ancient, tracing their origin been fully adequate in relation to the then conditions. If from forms which in quite early days underwent reduction organisms have grown in complexity, it is only where the (as a means of specialisation) from the highly developed conditions of their life have become more complex. The flowers which probably characterised the first autonomous most striking examples of high organisation in relation to angiosperms. organic environment are presented by the characteristic The tentative and somewhat fragmentary observations modern subkingdom, the angiosperms, in the evolution of which I have here stated tend to the following conwhich, as Saporta pointed out, insect fertilisation has been clusions :the chief determining factor, leading to an infinite variety (1) That at all known stages of the past history of in the special adaptations of the flower, and no doubt plants there has been a thoroughly efficient degree of indirectly afiecting the mode of life of the whole plant. adaptation to the conditions existing at each period. The advent of the angiosperms seems to have been almost
1 "Darwin and Modern Science." XII. The Falæontological Record. II. 1 " Origin of Species," sixth edition, r: 308.
| Plants. (1969.)
(2) That the characters of plants, having always been employers of labour, of labour organisations, the PR as highly adaptive as they now are, natural selection Services, local education authorities, teachers of all size appears to afford the only key to evolution which we at inspectors of schools, and persons specially interes: present possess, for all periods covered by the palæonto- philanthropy. The volume available, with its carefu! * logical record.
sideration of every aspect of the problem, brings ha (3) That this record only reveals a relatively short section forcibly to the reader its complexity and importance, of the whole evolution of plants, during which, though we hope to deal more fully with the whole question there has been considerable change, there has not been, future issue. Here we will only express satisfaction on the whole, any very marked advance in organisation the views of enlightened educationists are being broer except in cases where the conditions have become more prominently into public view by reports such as that becom complex, as shown especially in the floral adaptations of The resolutions as to leaving age and continua angiosperms.
schools contained in the report of the Education Comin.--(4) That simple forms existing at the present day are, of the British Science Guild (NATURE, January 28, as a rule, of a reduced rather than a primitive nature, lxxix., p. 382) receive substantial support from the C but that such reduction may have often set in at sultative Committee's conclusions, and it may be hos relatively early stage of evolution, and is, therefore, con- that action will be taken before long in the direction, sistent with a considerable degree of antiquity in the dicated by them. Most of the German States have ei. reduced forms.
pulsory continuation schools, and Scotland was placed
the same position by its Education Act of last year. UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL
remains for England to adopt a like standard of educatino INTELLIGENCE.
efficiency for its children. Dr. C. G. Barkla, demonstrator and assistant lecturer On the vote of 13,648,7921. for the expenses of the B.-. in physics at the University of Liverpool, has been of Education, Mr. Runciman, President of the Board, the appointed professor of physics in King's College, London, a statement in the House of Commons last week reviene in succession to Prof. Harold A. Wilson, F.R.S., who has the state of education in the country. Dealing * accepted an appointment in McGill University, Montreal. technical education, the Minister spoke hopefulls. It Mr. P. H. Kirkaldı has been appointed an assistant pro- been, he said, the object of the Board of Education fessor in chemistry in the same college.
make technical education more practical, with a con HARVARD has this vear conferred only one honorary bearing on the duties likely to be required from the words doctorate of science, The recipient is Mr. S. F. Emmons, men and women who pass through technical classes. of the U.S. Geological Survey. The University has con- agriculture there is one remarkable fact, namelv, ferred upon its late president, Dr. C. W. Eliot, not only garden classes in elementary schools have been enormouse the honorary LL.D., but the honorary M.D. “It has not on the increase, and during the last few years the nuk been our custom, " said the new president, Prof. Lowell,
of these classes which are now carried on in these scher, " to .confer the degree of Doctor of Medicine honoris has been trebled. There has been considerable developm: causa, but an exception is fitting in the case of one who, in technical classes which can be attended by those in the opinion of professors of medicine, has accomplished intend to enter on an agricultural career, by young farmer. more for the progress of medical education in this country and young labourers who at the present time have than any other living man, Charles William Eliot. Not spend long and laborious days in the fields or farmhousa in its buildings alone, but also in the instruction and but who are prepared to devote one or two evenirs research within its walls, he found our medical school week to the specialised training which can be provided brick and left it marble. At Yale the honorary D.Sc.
technical classes. The cumulative effect of technical train has been conferred on Profs. E. W. Morley, W. T. Serig. ing on the young men and women of our country in wick, and E. H. Moore-a chemist, a biologist, and a
show itself sooner or later. The great emplovers to mathematician respectively.
been giving help, said Mr. Runciman, in many parts A FOURInscrirs of lectures on scientific microscopy is to
the country to those who organise the technical school be held at the institute for microscopy of the University
Messenger boys, for instance, are induced more and more of Jena from October 11-16 next. Prof. H. Ambronn will
to take advantage of the classes in the evening. SC give two lectures, the first on Abbe's theory of the forma
great emplovers, like the General Post Office, not only tion of the microsconic image, and the second on the give direct inducement to their messenger bovs. but put a method of testing objective systems. Dr. H. Siedentopf certain amount of pressure on them to take advantage also will lecture twice, dealing with dark-ground illumina. classes, and many emplovers all over the country have made tion and ultramicroscopy. Dr. A. Köhler's two lectures
it a condition of service in their works or their great his have for their subjects photomicrography : (a) projection of
ness establishments that the bors should attend a certain the image on the plate, th) illumination of the obiect with
number of classes every week. 'The inspectors of transmitted and incident light, and photomicrography with
Board are not only taking a keen interest in the curriculus ultra-violet light. In connection with each lecture suitable
but they are also acting as missionaries in what is one ni practical work has been arransed, and demonstrations also
the most useful forms of educational work initiated during will be provided. Anplication for admission to the lectures
the last few years. In concluding his speech, Mr. Runn should be made to Dr. Ehlers, Tena, Beethovenstr. Vo. 14.
man pointed out that we still have nothing but an o!4, A fifth sopies of lectures wi!! be held from March 5-12,
temporarv building in which our valuable science collection 1910, in the anntornical institute of the Leipzio l'niversity,
is housed, and he expressed the hope that it may be Tue first volume of the report on attendance, compulsory
possible in the near future to give this great collection 1 or otherwise, at continuation schools, prepared by the
hetter building in which it may be exhibited, and to gris?
to those who have lent or given to that museum cogna Consultative Committee for the Board of Education, was published (Cd. 4757) a few days ago. The evidence on
security that the objects which they have given will have
well preserved and well exhibited. which the recommendations of the committee have been based will be issued later as a separate volume. The com- The new engineering buildings of the University of mittee was instructed to consider, among other matters, Manchester were opened by Sir Alexander Kennedy or “ whether any means, and if so what, can be devised, in July 15. The general scheme comprises four adjacent respect of rural areas and of urban areas respectively, for buildings; the main block, a three-storied building, con securing (i.) that a much larger proportion of bovs and tains the lecture rooms, tutorial rooms, drawing offices, girls should on leaving the public elementary school com- private 'rooms, and research room. The hvdraulic and mence and continue attendance at evening schools than testing laboratory covers the space at the back of this at present do so, and (ii.) that emplovers and other persons building, and connected to it by a covered way are the or bodies in a position to give effective help shall co- thermodynamic laboratories and the workshop. Principal operate in arranging facilities for such attendance on the Hopkinson presided at the opening ceremony, and in the part of their employees, and in planning suitable courses course of his renarks pointed out that the example set by and subjects for the schools and classes." The witnesses the Owens College in 1866, in providing for the professional examined by the committee included representatives of education of engineers, has been followed by all the
important universities in the country. During his speech 1,000,000 per second) used in wave-telegraphy, Two Sir Alexander Kennedy made it clear that the old system wave-meters (A and B) were tested, both being of the type of apprenticeship has become inadequate. The function of consisting of a series of self-inductance coils used singly the laboratory, he said, is to try to let a man learn by (L) in series with a variable air-condenser (K) and a thermohandling, experiment, and measurement the nature of the ammeter, the reading of K being obtained by altering the materials with which he will have to deal later. The capacity until the circuit shows resonance with the working extraordinarily rapid progress which has been made in circuit. The coils of wave-meter (A) were wound with mechanical and electrical engineering during the last solid wire, those of (B) with stranded wire (7/365), each generation has been largely due, Sir A. Kennedy thinks, strand being separately insulated. The absolute value of to the good training all over the country of the men who the frequency was determined by photographing sparkhave to carry out the details of the work. On the part trains in the primary circuit by means of a rotating mirror of colleges and universities, he continued, there is a running at a constant and accurately measured speed. The tendency to attempt to make students do a great deal too value of the frequency deduced from the measured values much. While it is necessary that an engineer shall have of K and L with wave-meter (B) were in close agreement a knowledge of a great many things before he gets to with the actual frequency deduced from the spark-photohis profession, he cannot acquire much knowledge in three graphs. With wave-meter (A) the agreement was naturyears. It may be hoped that a strong university with ally not nearly so close, but was much improved when the a strong man' at its head will draw a very distinct line values of the self-inductances of the solid wire coils were in some common-sense fashion in defining what knowledge corrected to the high-frequency values by the formulas of shall be imparted to the students. Sir William Mather Heaviside and L. Cohen.-An electromagnetic method of proposed a vote of thanks to Sir A. Kennedy, and expressed studying the theory of and solving algebraical equations of his disappointment at the neglect displayed by the large any degree : Dr. Russell and Mr. Alty. The problem of engineering firms of the Manchester district in connection finding the roots of an algebraical equation of the nth with the higher development of engineering science among degree is identically the same as that of finding the posiyoung men. The success of engineering in the future will tions of the “neutral points," that is, the points where the depend almost wholly on elements quite different from those resultant force due to the earth and definite currents in a which have distinguished it in the past. The next genera- | long vertical wires is zero. The r wires are arranged at tion of engineers must be trained carefully by methods any convenient distances apart in a plane which is at right enabling them, above all things, to combine economy with angles to the magnetic meridian. The currents in the efficiency. The technical school must perforce stop short wires are then adjusted to certain values which are readily of what may be called the practical part of applying found by the methods of partial fractions. If x, and y, be machinery in the best possible way. To ensure success, the coordinates of one of these neutral points measured with there must, he continued, be a certain number of young reference to certain definite axes, x, y, V-is a pair of students devoting themselves to laboratory work, and this roots of the original equation. All the real roots lie on the extension of Manchester University must prove of great axis of X which cuts the wire at right angles. The posiusefulness.
tions of the neutral points thus determine all the roots,
real and imaginary, of the given equation. The peculiar SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES.
advantage of the method is that it is easy to see, in many LONDON.
cases almost at once, what effect varying the value of the Physical Society, June 25.– Dr. C. Chree, F.R.S., presi equation. The sine condition in relation to the coma of
coefficient of any power of x will have on the roots of the dent, in the chair. -A transition point in zinc amalgam : optical systems : S. D. Chalmers. The condition for the Prof. H. S. Carhart. The paper gave the preliminary correction of coma in a centred optical system is the wellresults of an investigation which has for its primary object known sine condition. This has been proved by Clausius, the determination of the heat of dilution of zinc amalgams.
Helmholtz, Hockin, and others, and the importance of this This heat of dilution is negative, that is, the dilution of zinc amalgam by the addition of mercury absorbs heat. In
condition in the design of optical systems has been pointed
out by Abbe, Steinheil, Conrady, and others. The present the course of the experimental work, which was conducted by Dr. W. D. Henderson, phenomena so extraordinary
paper shows how to obtain the relation between the coma of
a system and the errors in the sine condition.-A new Féry were encountered that the concentration at which they thermo-electric calorimeter : Dr. C. V. Drysdale. This occur was called a transition point in zinc amalgam. The form of calorimeter can be used continuously, and permits method employed was electrical, by means of a concentra
the value of the gas produced in a gas-works or producertion cell, the only difference between the two legs of the
plant to be watched from time to time.-An instrument cell of H-form being in the concentration of the amalgam
for measuring the strength of an intense horizontal magcomposing the electrodes.-A method of producing an in
netic field: F. W. Jordan. The method consists in tense cadmium spectrum, with a proposal for the use of measuring directly the transverse force on a conductor mercury and cadmium as standards in refractometry : Dr.
traversed by a current in a direction at right angles to the T. M. Lowry. Of the twenty-six wave-lengths that have
field.-A method of determining the sensibility of a been used in the study of rotatory dispersion (Proc. Roy. Soc., Ixxxi., p. 472, November 19, 1908) the following barometer : Mr. Todd.
balance : Prof. Poynting.-The balance as a sensitive seven have been found to be the most suitable for general
Challenger Society, June 30.- Dr. A. E. Shipley in Li
the chair.-Colour changes in tropical sea perches from Cd Na Hg Cd cu Ig
the Bermudas : C. T. Regan. In one case an individual 6708 6438 5893 5461 5086 4800 4358
specimen exhibited successively the coloration of three soIn refractometry it has been customary to use the series :- called species."--Recent observations of Prof. Otto Ha Na Ils Hy
Pettersson on tide-like movements in deep water : Dr. 6560 5893 4861
H. R. Mill. Daily observations on temperature and salinity This series has the disadvantages (1) that the chief standard were made at close intervals from surface to bottom in Na 5893 is a doublet, and (2) that the other three lines the Gullmar Fjord, when covered by ice, between are of such weak intensity that they are useless for the January 30 and March 25 of this year. The effect was majority of optical measurements. It is therefore urged that of an invasion of sea water from the Skagerack twice that-in view of the readiness with which the mercury and
in a lunar period, followed by a withdrawal of the sea cadmium spectra can now be produced—the mercury green
water and the filling up of the upper part of the fjord line should be generally adopted in place of sodium as chief with brackish land water in rhythmical succession, and standard in optical work of all kinds, and that the hydrogen Prof. Pettersson inclined to the belief that these movelines should be abandoned even as secondary standards in ments were of tidal origin. Dr. Mill pointed out that favour of the series of wave-lengths set out above. Sir John Murray and he had shown that similar effects of The measurement of wave-length for high-frequency elec
a non-periodical kind were produced in sea- and freshtrical oscillations: A. Campbell. The experiments had
water lochs of Scotland by the action of wind, and that for their object the calibration of wave-meters for the he had shown analogous effects on the Atlantic coast of measurement of the high frequencies (200,000 up
A rapid method for testing plants for hydrocyanic acid Academy of Sciences, July 12.-M. Émile Picard in Marcel Mirande. Any cyanogenetic plant, subinitio the chair.— The nature of the change undergone by crystals
the action of chloroform vapour, at once gives oft hr of heptahydrated sodium sulphate in contact with crystals cyanic acid. The latter can be detected by the of the decahydrate: D. Gernez. From an examination of Guignard's picrate paper.--The action of urohypotens the phenomena occurring with supersaturated solutions of on the arterial pressure : J. E. Abelous and E. Bordier, sodium sulphate, sodium chromate, acetate, and hypo
- The proof of alimentary glycosuria in epileptics: 1 sulphite, it is concluded that the opacity of the lower
Florence and Clement. The hypotensive action of sein hydrated crystals in contact with the higher hydrate is due
from a dog which had been deprived of its supras. to penetration of crystals of the higher hydrate into the capsules : Jean Gautrelet and Louis Thomas.-17 crystalline network of the lower. There is no evidence for chemical composition of ox bile : N. A. Barbieri.-IE
life of yeast' after fermentation : E. Kayser
Demolon.— The action of the ultra-violet rays on cidit gases which form in volcanic fumaroles or which emerge
fermentation : MM. Maurain and Warcollier.- Expr. from the craters of old volcanoes : Armand Gautier. The
mental reproduction of exanthematic typhoid in the apa gases from the old crater of Agnano, near Saples, consist
Ch. Nicolle.—The chemical effects of immersion in warm almost entirely of carbon dioxide (96 per cent. to 98 per
of the quartz mercury-vapour lamp: J. Courmont, T cent.), together with traces of methane and a little more
Nogier, and A. Rochaix. No ozone is produced whi* than i per cent. of nitrogen. The latter contains argon,
would account for the observed bactericidal effects, and ra neon, and helium, and possibly the other argon gases.
other chemical change of importance could be detectedThe influence of anæsthesia on the decomposition of certain
Symmetry of organs in some species of Syllis : 4 glucosides in plants: L. Guignard. Plants of black
Michel.–The reactions of some mitochondria : E. Fauré mustard, submitted to the action of chloroform vapour,
Fremiet.—The ichthyologica! fauna of Lake Victor: . produce the mustard essence; cooling to the temperature
Jacques Pellegrin.-The Silurian of Nova Zembla : 0 of boiling methyl chloride produces the
effect. Roussanof.—The earthquake of Provence, June 11, 1970 Similar observations have been described by M. Mirande Louis Fabry,—The earthquake of July 7, 1909 : Alfr regarding the formation of hydrocyanic acid.-A hæmo- Angot. gregarian of Pituophis melanoleucus : A. Laveran and A. Pettit.-The neutral carbonates of rubidium and cæsium : M. de Forcrand. A thermochemical paper.
PAGE The theory of functions : Henri Lebesgue. A correction of a previous paper.-The singularities of uniform
The Dressing of Minerals
The Reconstructional Anatomy of the Kidney. Ry The apparatus described is capable of measuring ionisation
R. D. K. over a wide range ; details are given of the results obtained
Greeks and Hittites. By J. G.
9j in numerous chemical reactions.-Remarks on the preceding Some New Chemical Books. By J. B. C. paper : A. Gautier.-A
of separating Our Book Shelf:uranium X, and on the relative activity of this substance. Ladenburg: “Histoire du Développement de la Chimie B. Szilard. The method is based on the addition of serric
depuis Lavoisier jusqu'a nos Jours acetate, ammonium acetate, and acetic acid the Schmid : Biologisches Praktikum für höhere uranium solution, and the precipitation of the iron by
Schulen”; Schurig : “Biologische_Experimente heating; uranium X is concentrated in the precipitate.
nebst einem Anhang mikroskopische Technik -The chemical action of the penetrating rays of radium
Garrod : “ Inborn Errors of Metabolism."-W. D. H. 96 Miroslaw Kernbaum. Radium rays that
Stone : “ Practical Testing of Gas and Gas-meters' had passed through glass decomposed water in accord- Clayton: “A Compendium of Food-microscopy
the equation 2H,O=H,O+H,, both the Letters to the Editor :hydrogen and hydrogen peroxide being determined quanti- Molecular Scattering and Atmospheric Absorption.tatively. An attempt to obtain a similar reaction by
Prof. Arthur Schuster, F.R.S.
97 allowing Röntgen rays to act upon water for 100 hours The Fixation of Nitrogen by Soil Bacteria.-A. D. gave negative results.-The diffusion of ions through
Hall, F.R.S. metals : Georges Moreau. The passage of ions through Occasional Unexplained Ringing of House-bells. heated plates of platinum, nickel, iron, and brass has been Sir Oliver Lodge, F.R.S. studied. A theory of the diffusion has been developed, and
Musical Sands.- Rev. Dr. A. Irving .
99 an experimental confirmation given.—The action of the Wych Elm Seedlings.- Rosamond F. Shove 99 a rays on solid dielectrics : Tcheslas Bialobjeski. A study Popular Natural History. (Illustrated.)
99 of the alteration in the conductivity of sulphur produced
The Adamello Group By T. G. B. by the a rays of polonium.-The hydrolytic decomposition Tidal Problems. By F. Stratton of bismuth bromide : René Dubrisay. There is only one Prof. Simon Newcomb. By Sir Robert S. Ball, bismuth oxybromide produced in this reaction : a rise of F.R.S.
103 temperature does not appreciably affect the hydrolytic dis- Notes
105 sociation of bismuth bromide.-A proposed solution for the Our Astronomical Column:equation of condition relating to the calculation of atomic Stationary Meteor Radiants weights : G. D. Hinrichs. The author points out that Comparison of the Spectra of the Centre and Edge his equation of condition is diametrically opposed to that
of the Sun's Disc
Scientific Work in India
113 with its sodium derivative : formation of methylisobutyi- Association of Economic Biologists carbinol and dimethyl-2 : 4-heptanol-6 : Marcel Guerbet.- The Museums Association
115 The iso-indogenides : A. Wani and P. Bagard.—The pro- Adaptation in Fossil Plants. By Dr. D. H. Scott, duction of peat on the rocks of tropical Africa : Aug. F.R.S.
115 Chevalier.- The ferment of belladonna: C. Gerber.-The University and Educational intelligence influence exerted by certain vapours on plant cyanogenesis. Societies and Academies