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Sale by Auction.

BROWNING'S

ASTRONOMICAL TELESCOPES

By order of Executors of the late Dr. ISAAC ROBERTS,

F.R.S., F.R.A.S.

EQUATORIAL TELESCOPE

(as figured), with fine 3 in. 0.G., best Equatorial mounting, on strong

Oak stand.

£25

CROW BOROUGH BEACON,

SUSSEX. In a magnificent position (about 780 feet above sea level)

commanding extensive and delightful views. MESSRS. LANGRIDGE & FREEMAN

have received instructions to SELL by AUCTION, at the Mart, Tokenhouse Yard, E.C., on FRIDAY, MARCH 17, 1905, at Two o'clock, the Freehold RESIDENTIAL ESTATE known as “STARFIELD," within about 1} miles of Crowborough Station (L. B. & S.C.R.). It comprises a well-built Detached Residence containing dining room, drawing room, enclosed verandah, five bed and dressing rooms, bath room, and offices, also library, laboratory, Fine Observatory, with revolving hemispherical copper-covered dome, Belvidere tower, &c. There are excellent stone-built Stables, Outbuildings, Greenhouse, Gardener's Cottage, and Entrance Lodge. The Pleasure Grounds studded with ornamental trees, include tennis lawn, productive kitchen garden, and wired.in fruit plantation. The whole property contains 4a. Ir. 3!p., a portion of which could be utilised for the erection of additional residences. The property will be so offered as to give the purchaser the opportunity of securing the exceedingly valuable telescopes and other astronomical

instruments, &c. Particulars, &c., of Messrs. ALSOP, STEVENS AND Co., Solicitors, 14 Castle Street, Liverpool; and (with Orders to View) of the Auctioneers, 28 Queen Street, Cheapside, E.C., and Tun bridge Wells.

“ UNIVERSITY” TELESCOPE, with 3 in. 0.G., 3 eyepieces,

star finder, vertical steadying rod, and fixing, on claw stand

in case £10 10 0 Do. with 3 in. 0.G.

£15 15 0 “ COLLEGE” TELESCOPE, with 3 in. 0.G. and 2 eyepieces, on claw stand

£5 10 0 Do. with selected 3 in. 0.G. and 3 eyepieces

£6 10 0 · STUDENT'S” TELESCOPE

5 0 ALT-AZIMUTH TELESCOPĒ, 4 in. Brass Body : £30 0 0

PRICE LISTS POST FREE.

£5

JOHN BROWNING, 78 Strand, LONDON.

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£3 10 0

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a

THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 23, 1905.

chronicler; but it is perhaps open to question whether

more selective and less annalistic method might not have been followed in this as in certain other

articles, such as the " Engineering ” of Mr. O. G. RECENT ENGLISH HISTORY.

Jones, where a more philosophic style is adopted with Social England. Edited by H. D. Traill and J. S.

marked success. Mann. Vol v., pp. lii +864; vol. vi., pp. lvi+948.

The British history of the nineteenth, or even of (London : Cassell and Co., Ltd., 1904.) Price 145.

the eighteenth, century in one volume, even though net each volume.

that volume run to 930 pages, is an undertaking An Introductory History of England. By C. R. L.

of no small difficulty; as the assistant editor-and Fletcher. Pp. xvii + 397. (London : John Murray.)

true chief pilot-of the venture, Mr. J. S. Mann, Price 7s. 6d.

himself admits. Intellectual and industrial achieveStudies on Anglo-Saxon Institutions. By H. M.

ments are now so multifarious that they can hardly Chadwick. Pp. xiii + 420. (Cambridge University be dealt with in the same book as the political and Press, 1905.) Price 8s, net.

social history. Science has become more than ever In the fifth and sixth

volumes of “Social cosmopolitan; processes in the great staple trades England,” lately re-issued in an illustrated have undergone developments far too specialised for edition (1904), considerable prominence is given to the ordinary reader; to a vast number of secondary subjects of scientific as well as of historical interest. and miscellaneous industries and interests it is imThus Mr. T. Whittaker (rather more adequately possible to assign any adequate recognition; a bare than in earlier stages) writes on philosophy and enumeration, the recognition of an allusion, is all natural science in the eighteenth century and the that can be spared for whole chapters of national Napoleonic age, and for the same period Mr. D'Arcy progress during the last age. To such themes as Power discusses medicine and public health, Mr. railways, merchant shipping, the machinery of comRaymond Beazley exploration and the advance of merce, the new developments in social organisation, geographical knowledge, and Mr. G. T. Warner art, and literature, it seems almost useless to devote manufacturing progress, machinery, and the trans

a few

pages; while the subject of colonial history formation of industry (v., 31-47, 56–73, 145-55, 292– has only to be mentioned for the most casual reader 307, 321–33, 408–35, 543-6, 560-84, 625-45, 756-60, to recognise the increased complication which the 805-22).

nineteenth century has brought to the national In the final or nineteenth century volume, geology, story. chemistry, astronomy, physics, biology, anthropology, Even since 1885, where the editors originally drew engineering, mining and metallurgy, applications of their line (evidently with some later regrets that this electricity, and the railway system of the United boundary could not be shifted down to the close of Kingdom are also treated, in addition to our old the Victorian reign), the local government of the friends philosophy, medicine, and exploration. The United Kingdom has been profoundly modified; new list of scientific writers is much enlarged, and com- methods have been introduced into industry; shipprises Prof. T. G. Bonney, Mr. Robert Steele, Mr. | building has taken a fresh start; legal reform has H. C. Jenkins, Lord Farrer, Miss A. M. Clerke, Mr. made notable progress; labour questions have been W. G. Rhodes, Mr. O. G. Jones, and Dr. J. Scott attended by many fresh developments; and Keltie (vi., 76-95, 239-90, 413-48, 675-793, 892-927). Imperial and Conservative movement (or reaction)

Among these contributions may especially of the most far-reaching character has influenced notice, for the sake of illustration, that of Dr. Keltie every side of national life and consciousness. on British exploration, 1815-85. Here we have a All the more heartily, then, we can congratulate good, clear, business-like summary (very well illus- the editors, contributors, and publishers of " Social trated, especially by contemporary maps) of a great England” on the measure of success they have and significant chapter in the life-history of the realised, on the immense body of valuable informEnglish people. But the amount of matter to be ation (sometimes a trifle unsifted, sometimes marred treated is vast, and Dr. Keltie is

by error, but on the whole highly creditable) which scientious in his determination not to omit a refer- is presented in these volumes, on the impartiality ence, however brief, to every important personage and truly scientific spirit which pervade almost the and event within the limits of his subject, that the whole of the work, and by no means least, on the narrative becomes at times a chronicle of the nature suggestive and representative illustrations by which of “ materials for history.” Thus, in tracing the the best of all possible commentaries is afforded to course of British explorations in Central Asia and the text. the Far East alone, the work of Moorcroft, Wood, Mr. Fletcher's “ Introductory History of England ” Shaw, Forsyth, Hayward, Trotter, Carey, Bell, down to the accession of the Tudors, where the author James, Younghusband, Basil Hall, Collinson, Fortune, fixes, for his purpose, the close of the Middle Ages, Blakiston, Ney Elias, Sladen, Margary, Gill, Baber, is a brave and vigorous attempt to get away from Colquhoun, McCarthy, Williamson, Gilmore, Alcock, dulness without losing touch of truth, to invest the and Mrs. Bishop is summarised in two pages. It story of mediæval England with an interest which is no doubt difficult to avoid such treatment, and the is lacking in such arid text-books as have become secretary of our Geographical Society is an excellent only too plentiful of late. As we might expect from

an

We

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IN

Mr. Fletcher, the book he has now given us is volume seems to be that dealing with the old English eminently characteristic, full of his own energetic, monetary system (accompanied by a useful excursus practical activity, his love of health, fresh air, and on Frankish coinage, "pp. 1–75). And next to this good exercise.

the reader may be recommended to the chapters deal“When I began," he tells us, “I had foolish hopes ing with the history of the older counties (Kent, that it might be a book some boys would take up &c., pp. 269-307) and with the origin of the nobility for amusement, but I soon discovered that twenty- (pp. 378-411). Great caution marks all Mr. Chadthree years of teaching had made it impossible for

wick's work, and this

this quality is me to do more than smear the powder with a thin layer of jam. We cannot render our dreams of the

useful than in such a difficult period as the Anglopast (however convinced we may be of their truth) Saxon. But his treatment of our early charters is into an intelligible consecutive story."

also noticeable for its courage; when, even Here, it seems to us, there is both truth and un- obviously spurious documents, names and titles othertruth. Mr. Fletcher's story is, in the main, highly wise unknown are met with, the author, with a intelligible and adequately consecutive (though one daring that will

perhaps greatly shock some may make an exception of the Anglo-Saxon period, dogmatists, ventures to think that such names and where the author seems at times almost to sink titles are not necessarily products of imagination. to Milton's notions of “kites and crow's "); but | To find one who will say this, and who will appeal how can any true student regard English history as

moreover for a fairer hearing in the examination of if it were a nauseous drug, to be made palatable by | tradition, popular as well as ecclesiastical, is certainly some device? Should one not rather look at it as refreshing at the present moment. a storehouse from which a good judgment is needed to draw forth those treasures best suited to the

STEREOCHEMISTRY. audience one addresses—to the specialist this, to the general reader that, to the working man

Materialien der Stereochemie. (In Form von Jahresthing, to the merchant, the professional man,

berichten.) Band i., 1894–1898; Band ii., 1899-1902.

or the politician another ?

By C. A. Bischoff. Pp. cxxxvi + 1977. (BrunsYet though Mr. Fletcher anxiously disclaims the

wick : Vieweg and Son, 1904.) Price 90 marks. idea of pouring information into anyone, and still N the course of his reply to a letter from the more anxiously repudiates the ambition of helping

Chemical Society of London congratulating him anybody to pass any examination, he has certainly on the completion of the twenty-fifth year of his given us here a sketch of living men by a living doctorate, Prof. Emil Fischer writes as follows:man, and everyone who is not a pedant, everyone “ The time when the fundamental principles of who desires to remember that history is the life- our science were laid down, and when it was possible record of humanity, will be grateful to him for this

for the individual investigator to stamp the impress book. Peculiarly interesting is the picture attempted of his own mind upon it, is long since past, and in

the gigantic structure, which it now represents, each of an imaginary village in pre-Norman, Norman, and

fellow-worker can only finish some small fragment, post-Norman times, with its three fields, for wheat, or it may be, if he is fortunate, a pretty balcony or barley, and pasture, its arable strips, its green a striking turret. common or waste, its water-meadows, its pig-grazing The two ponderous tomes, in which Prof. Bischoff woods, its no-man's land, and its bull-croft-as records the advances made in stereochemistry from successful an attempt to realise the township-manor 1894 to 1902, illustrate in a very striking manner this as any popular treatise has supplied in English of ever-increasing tendency to specialism in chemical recent years; while a word must also be said in research, which Fischer emphasises in the sentence praise of the capital little chapter of geological just quoted. history, illustrated by a serviceable map of N.W. Although Pasteur, in 1861, by his classical experiEurope in the Old Stone age, with which Mr. ments with the isomeric tartaric acids, may be said Fletcher commences.

to have laid the foundation of stereochemistry, the Mr. Chadwick's “Studies on Anglo-Saxon Institu- growth of this branch of chemical science was at first tions " supplies a useful corrective to the studied vague- slow, since it was not till 1873 that Wislicenus ness with which Mr. Fletcher treats our English pointed out as a consequence of his work with lactic history. Here careful re-examination of the acid that differences between compounds of identical evidence bearing on some of the most interesting structure must be ascribed to differences in the spacial problems of early English history and sociology is arrangement of their atoms within the molecule. attempted with distinct success. The writer's object | The publication in the following year by van't Hoff has especially been to call attention to those branches and Le Bel of their theory of the asymmetric carbon of the subject which have hitherto suffered from atom gave an immense impulse to experimental work, comparative neglect. Thus he has dealt very lightly so that optically active compounds, which in those with Mercian and Northumbrian history because he earlier days were numbered by tens, may now be had nothing of importance to add to previous work; counted by thousands. but evidence relating to Kent, Sussex, Essex, and the The rapid development of stereochemistry is not, Hwiccas has been reviewed and re-stated with great however, restricted to the field of optically active care, and with the belief that some fresh results have compounds. The researches of Victor Meyer and of been attained. The most valuable portion of the Bischoff are fundamental in that branch where the

a

normal and abnormal courses of many reactions are interpreted from a stereochemical standpoint. Then again, the study of geometrical isomerides, such as substances of the ethylene type with the so-called double linkage between carbon atoms, of poly

A TRAVELLER'S GUIDE TO INDIA.
The Imperial Guide to India, including Kashmir,

Burma and Ceylon. Pp. xi +244; with illustrations,
maps, and plans. (London : John Murray, 1904.)
Price 6s. net.

methylene and heterocyclic compounds, of a compounds THE large and constantly increasing number of

manner.

atom and a nitrogen atom, and finally of compounds with a

Empire during the winter, together with the smaller double linkage between two nitrogen atoms, has section who extend their trip so as to include a summer engaged the attention of many prominent contem- sojourn in Kashmir or some other Himalayan district, porary workers.

must create an extensive demand for a work like the The well-known “Handbuch der Stereochemie,''

one before us, and the wonder is that an attempt has by Walden and Bischoff, gives a comprehensive survey not been made long ago to supply such a manifest of stereochemical literature up to the year 1894. want. In the present volume, which is got up in conOwing to the rapid developments of the last ten years, venient size and shape for the pocket, and printed in however, this work has lately lost much of its initial small although clear type, with the chief items in value as a source of reference. This defect is now

caps. or block type, the anonymous author seems, on remedied. In the “Materialien der Stereochemie the whole, to have discharged a by no means easy we have an addendum to the “Handbuch," the

task in a thoroughly satisfactory and painstaking literature of each successive year from 1894 to 1902

Indeed, so far as a somewhat extensive being classified in a manner which cannot fail to personal experience of the country permits of our formprove of the utmost service. The subject matter for ing a judgment, we may say that, as a viaticum and each year is treated under four sections, namely, itinerary, which is, of course, its main purpose, the general stereochemistry, optical isomerism,

geo- work is well-nigh all that can be desired so far as its metrical isomerism of optically inactive compounds, somewhat limited space permits. Although necesand interdependence of spacial relationships and sarily brief, the descriptions of the towns, cities, and chemical reactions. A brief description of each paper stations, and of the railway or other routes by which quoted is usually given. The first section on general they are reached, are in the main excellent, and convey stereochemistry, in addition to the bibliography of a very large amount of useful and necessary informspecial monographs published during the particular ation. The various routes are also carefully planned year, embraces references to chemical dynamics, and thought out, and will enable the tourist to find crystallography, spectroscopy, &c., in so far as those his way about and to visit much of what is most worth subjects have any stereochemical bearing. In the seeing with the least amount of discomfort and diffithree other sections the papers of more general interest culty. Whether, however, the "selected Hindustani are first quoted; then follow references to the more phrases at the end of the volume will enable the special papers which are not quoted chronologically, tourist to make himself understood by the natives of but are conveniently classified according to their even the Hindustani-speaking provinces may be more subject matter.

than doubtful. The field reviewed in the first subdivision of the But the author has not been content to make his fourth section deals with ring systems, and is so vast work a mere itinerary. On the contrary, he treats his that, as a rule, only references are given to the readers to brief dissertations on the ethnology, natural innumerable papers quoted. On the other hand, the history, and geology of the Indian Empire, with papers on polymerisation, substitution, addition

scrappy pieces of information with regard to the sport actions, hydrolysis, &c., included in the same section to be obtained. With respect to this aspect of the are dealt with in more detail.

volume, we are compelled to say, in the first place, The general student will find this work unreadable. that the author has not allowed himself sufficient space The author contents himself with the abstract he to make the information he attempts to convey of any gives, and hardly ever ventures any criticism.

real value, and secondly, that it would have been well Little or no attempt is made to differentiate between had he taken expert advice and assistance. the important and the unimportant, and in this One fault about the introductory chapter is that it respect it seems to the present reviewer that more

is too

parochial.” The volume professes to treat of prominence might with advantage have been given India, Ceylon, Burma, and Kashmir, but this chapter, to such research as is acknowledged by all to be although the reader is not told so, seems to refer only outstanding. From the point of view of the specialist,

to India proper.

For instance, we are told that shoothowever, the work is admirable. Its value lies not ing licences are not required (p. 10), and yet we find so much in the information actually afforded by the (p. 186) that these are necessary in Kashmir. Again, abstracts themselves as in the remarkably complete in the ethnological paragraphs we find no reference bibliography which it presents. The ardent stereo- under the heading of non-Aryan races to either the chemist, who in his own particular sphere may be Veddas of Ceylon, the Burmese, or the Mongoloid tempted to exclaim, “ Zwar weiss ich viel, doch tribes of the north-east frontier, while the classification möcht' ich alles wissen,” will assuredly find in this of the natives of the peninsula merely by religion work an aid to the realisation of his desire.

leaves much to be desired. The general description

A. McK. of Indian scenery-inclusive of natural history and

re

on

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