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Yet farmer may

That sends enow,

do so.

are doomed to the same course of life:

What charge and pain,

To little gain while the free-born peasant, even if

Doth follow toiling plough. sorely pinched himself, and hardly able to rear his family, knows that other lines

Thank God, and say, of life are open to them, which present

For yearly such good hap greater opportunity for rising to those

Well fare the plough, who possess ability, while he himself is

To stop so many a gap. protected from ill usage, and can change his service whenever he sees occasion to

Harrison, in 1586, estimates the yield Nor is the employment of free or produce of corn ground in average labourers, rather than slaves, less advan. years, to be sixteen to twenty bushels of tageous to the master. But to proceed wheat or rye well tilled and dressed, with this discussion would lead us from thirty-six bushels of barley, or four to our immediate subject. The sixteenth five quarters of oats. century, however, is to be noticed as At the commencement of the sixteenth having seen the end of slavery in Eng- century, the usual price of wheat, soon land; a material change and improve after harvest, in plentiful years, appears ment in the lower classes followed; but to have been about 5s. the quarter. this, like every state of transition, was During the middle of this period, it not passed through without considerable averaged 88. ; towards the close it had insuffering, as we have already noticed. creased to 158. and upwards. A law,

The employments of a farmer's wife passed in 1594, allowed the exportation at this period were not trivial, if a writer of wheat, when the price was not more than in 1539 is correct. In addition to caring 20$., of peas and beans at 138. 4d., barley for the food and clothing of the family, and malt 12s.: we may therefore suppose “ it is a wife's occupation to wynowe

these were reckoned fair average prices. all manner of cornes, to make malte, to The mixture of rye and wheat sown towashe and wrynge, to make heye, shere gether, was called miscelin. But there corne, and in time of nede to helpe her were many years in which, from scarcity, husbande to fyll the muckwayne or the price of wheat increased to two or three dounge carte, to drive the ploughe, to pounds, and in one of the closing years, loade heye, corn, and suche other. And for a short time, to five pounds the quarto go or ride to the market; to set butter, ter. Raleigh computed that the value of chese, mylke, egges, chekyns, capons, corn imported, at this period, was equal hennes, pygges, gese, and all manner of to two millions annually. The chief

We must suppose this to be consumption was of bread made from the beau ideal of a farmer's wife of the inferior grain. The allowance to a baker, sixteenth century; few specimens of such in 1495, was 2s. per quarter; in 1592, a concentration of accomplishments could

when the best wheat was 21s. 4d., it really have existed !

was 6s. 10d. per quarter of flour, A poem, written by Thomas Tusser,

reckoned thus : fuel, 6d.; two journeyof Essex, about the middle of the cen- men and two boys, 1s. 8d. ; yeast, 1s. ; cantury, contains minute particulars of the dles and salt, 4d.; himself, family, and agriculture of that periods. We have house rent, 28.; the miller's toll, is, 4d. room only for one extract the “Corn Bakers, living at Stratford, were allowed Harvest."

to sell bread from carts in London, being

two ounces heavier in the penny loaf 1. One part cast forth, for rent due out of hand. than bread baked in the city. There 2. One other part, for seed to sow thy land. 3. Another part, leave parson for his tythe.

were large mills on the river Lea in that 4. Another part, for harvest sickle and scythe. neighbourhood. 5. One part, for plough-wright, cart-wright, T'he improvement of agriculture, dur

knacker, and smith. 6. One part, to uphold thy teams that draw there- | ing this century, mainly proceeded from

the progress of manufactures and com7. One part

, for servant, and workman's wages lay. merce, with the advance of the general 8. One part, likewise, for fill-belly day by day. 9. One part, thy wife for needful things doth state of society. Agriculture and com10. Thyselfe and child, the last one part would

merce mutually benefit each other; to think these interests are really opposed,

is a great mistake. The English manuWho minds to quote Upon this note,

facturers and farmers are reciprocally May easily find enow,

the best customers to each other; but if

9 cornes.





undue advantages are given to either at Baynard's castle, 5s." The palace class, the other must suffer.

gardens of Elizabeth are described as The increase of flocks, and of inclo- having groves, ornamented with trellis sures for pasture, excited much discontent work, cabinets of verdure, walks emat this period; it doubtless produced in- bowered with trees, columns and pyraconvenience, which ever must be the mids of marble, statues, and fountains. case during a state of transition; but it was another evidence of the general prosperity of the country,

OLD HUMPHREY ON TERMS USED Among the evils remaining from feudal times, the practice of purveyance What a continual holiday of the severely oppressed the agriculturist. By heart! what an unceasing jubilee of the this power, the queen's officers could take spirit would it be if mankind would alany rural produce at certain prices, ways dwell together in peace and love ! usually below the market rate : a large But the time is not yet. While sin is proportion was often resold for their own alive, sorrow will never die; and, thereprofit; or they took money from the far- fore, though our paths are thronged with mers as a bribe not to remove the articles. countless mercies, we must not expect An anecdote is told of a farmer, who them to abound with thornless flowers. made his way to court, and insisted upon That it is an advantage, nay, a duty seeing the queen : when he saw her pass, to look on the sunny side of things, is he made his best reverences, observing clear; and yet there are so many sources aloud, so as to attract her attention, that of grief and distress, that a thinking this was indeed a fair well-shaped lady, man can hardly avoid, now and then, more so than his daughter Madge, who walking in the shade, afflicting himself was reckoned the fairest in his parish; with regret, and shrouding his spirit but it could not be she that took all his with melancholy reflections. poultry, and sheep, and corn; that must I was musing, the other day, on the be a very monstrous sized person who many forms of expression that we meet could consume all that her purveyor re- with, and read over, without emotion, as quired. The queen never countenanced things of course, though they involve malpractices in her officers, and being every thing that is dreadful to human not displeased with the compliment to nature. Among them, I was calling to her personal appearance, ordered the mind some of the phrases that are used complaint to be inquired into, and that in reference to war.

There is, in many the guilty purveyor should be punished. of these, such a brevity and careless ease, This evil became so notorious, that it that we hardly seem required to pause was partly done away before the end of upon them. The troops were driven her reign.

into the river." "The town was taken Another proof of progress in the state by storm." " The garrison were put to of society, and which strongly indicated the sword.” “The city was given up to an increased feeling of security, was the pillage.” “ The place was burned to the increase of gardens and orchards during ground." These light and tripping the sixteenth century; but as yet, in phrases are common place in military general, they consisted only of enclosed despatches, and, yet, what fearful expieces of ground near the mansion house, cesses ! what dreadful sufferings they with a limited assortment of flowers, involve! trees, and vegetables. The real progress Let us take one of them, and for a of English gardening rather belongs to moment examine it in a few of its ramithe next century, though Harrison, in fications. True it is, that we are now at 1486, speaks of great improvements in peace; but a calm is often succeeded by the preceding forty years, having sorts an unexpected storm, and the quietude of fruit trees in comparison of which of Vesuvius is followed by the loud belmost of the old trees are nothing worth. lowing of the burning mountain. Peace He speaks of near three hundred sorts of and war depend much on the public simples,” “not one of them being mind, and of that public we all form a common, as growing in his own little part; it may be well, therefore, to keep garden, of about three hundred square alive within us that hatred, which a refeet. One evidence of this progress, view of the cruel excesses of war is caleven in London, appears in the account culated to inspire. Let us take, for our of Henry vii. " for making an arber | examination, the expression, “ The city

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was given up to pillage." Those who of it as taking place in a distant part of have read much of scenes of warfare, the world ; it comes not home " to our well know that imagination is not likely business and bosoms," as it would do, to exceed the reality of the miseries were the occurrence to take place under which war has generally produced. The our observation; but rapine and murder narratives of Labaume and Porter, are crimes wherever they are practised, Wilson, Segur, Dufens, and others, and pain and heart-rending calamity are bring to our view such extravagant as hard to endure in one part of the scenes of calamity and cruelty, such dis- world as in another. plays of horrible enormity, that we won- “The city was given up to pillage." der why mankind do not, with one united There will be no harm in applying this and universal cry of abhorrence, exclaim to the immediate town or city in which against the practice and principle of we dwell; the place wherein we possess heart-hardening and demoralizing war. property, and where those live who are

But let it not be thought that I have dear to us, as the ruddy drops that warm any pleasure in blackening the reputa- our hearts; and here let no one accuse tion of a soldier: neither would I pre- me of wantonly harrowing up, human sumptuously brand the brow of him who feelings. Let no man tell me that I do differs with me in opinion; but, feeling wrong in painting war in its own sanas I do, that the word of God is the guinary colours ! I am persuaded it is word of peace, and that war is a bit- because Christians have been guiltily ter evil; and knowing, as I do, how silent, as to war's abominations, that so thoughtlessly we receive and retain the little repugnance is felt against strife and opinions of those around us, right or bloodshed. To shrink from a painted wrong, I claim the liberty of free speech, battle is affectation, if we have no antiwhile I endeavour to excite more con- pathy to a real one! Surely, if a monsideration and sympathy among the ad- ster affrights us not, we should not be vocates of war, than is usually mani- scared at his shadow! What I have fested.

read of the pages of warfare, has wrung The city was given up to pillage." from my very spirit a strong sympathy What is the real meaning of the term, for the victims of violence, and called giving up a place to pillage ? for it ex- forth an urgent, and irrepressible desire plains itself so little, that it may be worth to excite the same sympathy in others. while, for once, if it be only for the sake Let me, then, pursue my course. of impressing it on our memories, to For a moment, let me suppose the make ourselves familiar with the signi- roaring cannon to have brought down fication, as explained by past experience. our church spires; to have broken in It means, then, neither more nor less the walls and roofs of our habitations ; than this, that an infuriated soldiery are and that bomb shells, Shrapnell shells, given free leave and liberty to indulge, and Congreve rockets have set buildings without restraint, their selfish, brutal, without number on fire, and spread conand cruel passions, in plundering, burn- fusion around. All at once the thundering, and destroying the property of ing of the cannon ceases; the bombs unoffending people, and in ill-using, and rockets are no longer seen in the maiming, and murdering them without air, and a new and more dreadful plague control. This is the plain meaning, so spreads abroad. Wild and savage yells far as we can gather it from the most are heard, with the rattle of iron hoofs, authentic records of the occurrences, and trampling of hurried feet. Bands which have taken place in cases of the of armed men on foot and on horseback, kind. Indeed it must be so; for, in giv- burst in, like a resistless torrent, among ing armed and revengeful soldiers per- Doors are smashed, windows bromission to pillage, you give them leave ken. Here, soldiers broach or stave in to take, by force, the property of those the casks! there, others drain the jugs who, naturally enough, will make a or the bottles, till fired with brutal passtruggle to retain it: the consequences sions, drunkenness, revenge, and fury, are inevitable, and strife is succeeded by they wallow in pollution, and deal around bloodshed. How fearful, then, is the them desolation and death. expression, “ The city was given up to Household furniture is destroyed. Capillage !"

binets, bureaus, and boxes broken to The enormity of giving up a city to pieces. Jewels, money, curiosities, and pillage is not seen or felt, when we read | clothing huddled together, to be carried


away: Paintings are rent, sculpture | and your glory? whose gentleness, ten, mutilated, inscriptions defaced ; and derness, and affection are to influence, in family records, love tokens, and gifts of future years, the more rugged heart of friendship are torn, trampled, and burned. man? It remains with you, whether Oaths and blasphemies resound, riot your child, by encouraging in others the and debauchery are every where seen selfish dreams of ambition and pride, with the wildest forms of cruelty and shall strengthen the ranks of war, and death.

spread around desolation and death; or A father has borne all, grinding his by the exercise of persuasion, kindness, teeth in agony! He has seen the wreck and mercy, she shall prove the gentle of his property, the destruction of his advocate and influential promoter of worldly goods; but, when the lawless peace. hand of the ruffian-soldier lays hold on Blame me not for pressing this matter his family, he can bear no more: start- on your thoughts, but rather give it the ing up in their defence, and seemingly consideration it deserves. Be convinced, with more than mortal energy, he at- and try to convince others, that the only tacks his enemies. It is in vain ! a way to avoid the evils of war, is to drink dozen bayonets bear him to the ground; into the spirit of the gospel, and with and while he draws his last gasp, his life earnestness, truth, and sincerity, to welling from his wounds, he drinks in "follow after the things which make for the agonizing shrieks of those who are peace,” Rom. xiv. 19. dearest to him, calling uselessly for his aid.

His wife struggles hopelessly in the POLITICAL POWER OF THE PAPACY. savage grasp of the abandoned ruffians It must be obvious, to the most casual to preserve her babe. Alas! it is wan- visitor of Rome, that the great aim of tonly slaughtered, and mother and child those in power here is, to exalt and ag. lie bleeding on the ground; while the grandize the Romish church. All the cruel jests, and mad merriments of their splendid collections and rich specimens hard-hearted murderers, echo through of the fine arts in the Vatican, are dethe desolated mansion.

signed to adorn, beautify, and encircle Nor is this a.solitary scene. The same with a halo of glory, the skeleton of podemon-like career is carried on through- pery. There is another consideration, out the city, for the place " is given up which makes the papal religion assume to pillage;" mercy is exiled, and youth an air and attitude of importance and and beauty, wisdom and age, the infant dignity here—it is the court religion, and the hoary-headed are alike, Rapine, No one can expect any civil honours or brutality, murder, and conflagration are offices, or any favour from the crown, abroad.

who is not a zealous adherent to popery: Reader, this is the meaning of a city The Ronnish church is the very prop and being given up to pillage !" Are you pillar of the civil_government of the not called on then to resist, with every papal states. The Pope is their civil as power you possess, that spirit of warfare well as ecclesiastical sovereign, by virtue which tolerates such enormities ? Ought of the peculiar relation he holds to you not to bear testimony against it, Romish church. He is the king of the leaving it on record to your children, land through all the papal states, as well and children's children, to do the same ? as the head of the church. The road to

Have you a son in whom you delight, power and political influence is through and does he thirstily drink in, as water, the church, and the favour of those who the lessons of instruction you bestow. guide its affairs and guard its interests. Are desires gathering in his heaving The same motives which lead men in breast; and hope, and enterprise, and our country to resort to popular arts to expectation visible in his brightening please the people, and gain political influ

It remains with you, I speak ence, lead them at Rome to become zealwith due reverence to the Most High, ous Roman Catholics. If the truth whether he, by sharing such excesses as were known, I expect it would be found have been described, shall become a that the Pope himself values his civil, scourge to mankind; or, by the practice quite as much as his spiritual sceptre. of virtue and humanity, he shall be an Of course, the church is the pillar of his ornament and a blessing to his race. hopes, the great apparatus by which he

Have you a daughter, who is your joy gulls and hoodwinks the people; and as



long as he loves temporal power, he will | execution any plan he had formed. The hold on to his professed priestly supre- vigour and strength of his body appeared macy, and seek to perpetuate the reign every way cqual to the activity and restof superstition and darkness. Every one lessness of his mind. But all these quawho has at all examined the subject, will lities seemed now suddenly annihilated. see that there are prodigious incitements He would not connect himself with either in the papal church to unsanctified am- party in the conclave, after the death of bition. The most obscure monk, clad in Pius v. He withdrew almost wholly the coarsest robe, girded with a flaxen from the court, and very reluctantly rope, and shod with wooden sandals, took any part in political affairs, under may, by tact and cunning, and a certain Gregory xiii. He treated every one course of management, obtain a cardi. with kindness and affability, and suffered nal's hat, ride in a princely chariot, roll injuries without seeking revenge. He in splendour, and ultimately sit in the expended his income in acts of benevopapal chair. The now reigning Pope lence and literary enterprise; erecting rose to his present station, from an ob- monuments to forgotten saints, and miscure monk of the order of St. Gregory. nistering to the poor. His whole bodily

Sixtus v. also, who filled the papal appearance was changed. Instead of a see the latter part of the sixteenth cen- stout, vigorous frame, he had become tury, might be referred to, as another greatly emaciated, and presented the instance, illustrative of the preceding appearance of a sick and broken-down remarks. He was born near Montalto, old man, who loved, above all things of very indigent parents, and spent his else, tranquillity and devotion. Under early years in the most humble labours, the mask of pious simplicity and feeble to procure his daily bread. His proper old age, he gained much information name was Felix Peretti. He had an from the licentious nobles, who confided uncle that was a Franciscan monk, to him their secrets, while he acted as through whose influence he obtained ad their confessor. He thus deceived all mittance into one of the schools of this about him, as to his true character. religious order. Evincing brilliancy of Upon the death of Gregory XIII., the intellect, he ingratiated himself so far majority of candidates were of the opiinto the favour of his instructor, that he nion, that a pope like Montalto would be was continued in school till he had re- most easily managed, and probably would ceived a thorough education. He parti- soon, by his demise, leave the see vacularly distinguished himself in scholastic cant for another election. In the midst philosophy and theology, and in Roman of the conclave, convened in the electoral literature. He now rose rapidly, and chapel, stood Montalto, leaning with bent obtained not only holy orders, but the form and tremulous limbs, upon a staff

, title of Doctor of Divinity. His cele- to all appearance on the verge of the brity as an acute logician and eloquent grave, when his election to fill the ponpreacher, soon became widely diffused. tifical chair was announced. Instantly His learning and talents, and increasing he threw down, as with scorn, the staff distinction, awakened the jealousy of not on which he had leaned, and stood forth a few of the great men in the Roman erect in form, and with an elasticity of Catholic church, whose fame he threat- step that perfectly astonished and elecened to eclipse. They engaged in con- trified the whole college of cardinals. He troversy with him, and tried to crush no longer the feeble, decrepit, him. For a while they partially suc- simple old man, but the firm, vigorous, ceeded: but at length, he obtained a shrewd, ambitious pope Sixtus v., who cardinal's hat, and took the name of showed that he could grasp and wield Montalto. Well acquainted with the the sceptre of the world. His object was policy of his colleagues, he believed the now attained.' He had been acting a part surest way to gain the triple crown, the fifteen years, and now, having obtained great object of his ambition, was to pursue the object of his wish, the mask was a course of conduct which should not thrown off. awaken the jealousy of the other cardi- The possibility of attaining this high nals. Up to this period, he had been eminence is more clearly illustrated by distinguished as an intolerant, violent, the fact, that the occupants of the papal and most ambitious man. His habits, chair are generally selected, as in the also, were very active ; no labour or toils instance just related, from those whose would prevent him from carrying into prospects of continued life were not the


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