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trial chemistry? Are not such considerations as economy to a sum sufficient to pay the aggregate nationala of energy in its various forms, high yields, and the avoid- of all the civilised nations. Uncivilised nations are to ing, or, if unavoidable, the utilisation of bye-products the with neither national debts nor heat-regenerating a fundamental principles which we try to instil into the mind of the young chemist about to begin his career as a My last comparison between biology and applied > manufacturer ? The history of applied chemistry is teem- istry I should like to choose from a chapter which ing with examples where the survival of the fittest means might call biological sociology, though I am neither more nor less than a victory of economy.

that that name is commonly given to it. It treats at We all know that that marvellous creation of human wonderful phenomena of symbiosc and aggregation. ingenuity, the closed ring of industrial chemical processes Symbiosis is, as we now know, of very frequent a working in connection with Leblanc's method of pro- rence.

Plants or animals of totally different nature ducing soda, is practically extinct on the Continent and organisation, or even plants and animals, may cor materially reduced in its importance in England. This for joint life and activity with the object of helping fate it had to suffer, because it was a wasteful process, protecting each other in the great struggle for există wasteful in its utilisation of material and wasteful in its What neither of them would be able to fulfil or on consumption of energy. The skill and resource exerted by its own strength and power they can do with in its invention and constant improvement will for ever and certainty in their faithful allegiance. Gregar be gratefully remembered; but they were unable to check ness-the flocking together of organisms of the same : the progress of the Solvay process, which is more --arises from the same spirit of mutual help and pro economical in its use of energy, and of the electrolytic tion. methods for splitting up the alkaline chlorides, which pro- There is a great deal in human life and institutions, duce no bye-products.

our morals, politics, and science, which reminds us i The progress of industrial chemistry does not always the human race, as an intrinsic part of animated nat. depend on the introduction of more perfect, but also more has also inherited its all-pervading tendency for combin complicated, machinery and plant into the factories. Of forces; and what is thus apparent in the doings of course, every chemical process requires thorough working kind in general cannot be absent in the special fieri out from a mechanical point of view, and many of the activity which forms the object of our exertions. most brilliant successes of our modern chemical industry various forms of chemical industry are mainly due to a clever adaptation of mechanical means symbiotic. They depend upon each other for their suc: to a chemical end; but, taken as a whole, the real and progress. A solitary chemical factory in progress of the chemical industry does not so much consist otherwise devoid of chemical industry is prac: in the improvement of the apparatus as in the simplifica- | impossibility, Chemical works come in shoals if tion of the fundamental chemical reactions. More than come at all. The maker of acids and alkalis wants o once a seemingly insignificant chemical alteration of an chemical enterprises to use his products, and these, industrial process has produced the same or a better effect are constantly on the look-out for customers. The than the introduction of the most ingenious and costly varied and numerous the factories are, the plant.

prosper, in spite of their complaints of growing for That the great principle of economy is not only applic. | petition. able to the material necessary for carrying out chemical The chemists themselves are gregarious. They reactions, but perhaps even more to the energy consumed societies and academies and institutes and syndicate by them, is a distinctly modern idea. It is not so very the score, and who can deny the fact that brilliant rean long since we have begun to have, if I may say so, have been achieved by such combinations of forii a conscience for fuel. Previous generations took it for If we remember, in terms of unmeasured gratitude, granted that industrial work consumed coal, and that grcat originators of our science and its applications, the necessary coal had to be provided and to be paid for. cannot forget the help rendered to its progress be su We are now awake to the fact that the quantity of fuel institutions as the Royal Society and Royal Institut required for an industrial process is very much dependent the French, Italian, and German academies, the leadon the way in which it is made to do its work.

chemical societies, and the innumerable universities in Of course, the calorimetric effect of any given fuel is parts of the world, the rapid growth and extensior. a constant, and it is also true that we can never utilise which is the true gauge of our progress. more than a certain proportion of it; but this proportion Last, but I hope not least, in this list of brilliant agt may vary considerably. It was alarmingly small almost gations stand our congresses as a new, but most success through the whole of the nineteenth century, and we may creation. They represent a modern form of symbiccongratulate ourselves upon its present ascendent tendency. effort amongst chemists, which is the more remarka A striking example of the transformation of our views because it is international. They proclaim the great tr. about fuel and its proper use is the history of the smoke that science knows no boundaries and frontiers, that question. There was a time, both in England and on the Continent, when smoke was considered a necessary

the joint property of all humanity, and that its adherer evil which had to be suffered. After a while smoke began

are ready to flock together from all parts of the res to be looked upon as a nuisance, and war

for mutual help and progress. It is the great truth was declared

claimed by one of our past presidents, Marcellin Bert against it by those who suffered from its disagreeable lot_“ La science est la bienfaitrice de l'humanité entière properties; but now we know that smoke is a waste, and

-which our congresses might write on their banner, that nobody has better cause to wage war against it than it expresses the spirit which led to their foundation ? he who produces it. A smoking chimney does not only ensures their success. carry visible unburned carbon into the atmosphere, but in nine cases out of ten also invisible carbonic oxide and methane, with all the latent energy they contain. Smoking chimneys are thieves, and their misdeeds should not rise


INTELLIGENCE. But even chimneys that are innocent of incomplete com- Dr. H. KOBOLD, professor of astronomy at the K bustion may be guilty of stealing energy if they allow University, has been called to the similar post at Berlin. the gases of combustion to escape into the atmosphere MR. J. E. Barnard has been appointed lecturer with a higher temperature than is necessary to activate the draught. The lost energy of such gases may be

microscopy in the department of general pathology a trapped and recovered by the regenerating and recuperating

bacteriology, King's College, London. apparatus now so largely used by many industries. Re

Dr. G. S. West has been appointed to the chair generative gas-heating is not only a sure prevention of

botany and vegetable physiology in the University smoke, but also the most powerful means of economising

Birmingham, rendered vacant by the retirement of Pro heat, and therefore one of the greatest acquisitions of

Hillhouse. modern industry. It is perhaps not saying too much that

PROF. W. W. PAYNE has retired from the chair the saving of national wealth effected by it may amount astronomy at Goodsell Observatory, which he founded :

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com bam arleton College, Northfield (Minn.), in 1877, but retains tion to Science," and will include lectures on Galileo,

e co-editorship of Popular Astronomy. Dr. H. Wilson, Vesalius and others, by such well-known authorities as S co-worker, has been appointed to the professorship. Prof. Osler, Prof. A. Macalister, and Mr. Marconi. In

addition to the general course on Italy, lectures and classes Dr. C. Gordon Hewitt has accepted the appointment have been organised for economic and political science, and i entomologist to the Dominion of Canada in succession

a special class on practical map-making will be conducted the late Dr. James Fletcher, and has resigned, in con

by Mr. N. F. Mackenzie. Application for tickets, and quence, his post as lecturer in economic zoology in the He will leave England in

all inquiries in connection with the meeting, should be niversity of Manchester.

addressed to Mr. J. A. R. Marriott, University Extension "ptember to take up his new duties at Ottawa.

Office, Examination Schools, Oxford.
We learn from the Westminster Gazette that the heirs

We learn from the Pioneer Mail that a vesting order the late Herr Heinrich Lanz, head of the Mannheim

relating to the Tata Research Institute has been issued. be at igineering firm, have given a million marks for the

The order recapitulates the bequests of the late Mr. Tata, Ever the tablishment of an academy of sciences at Heidelberg,

and enumerates other gifts which have been made for the u allez hich will stand in the same relation to the university

purposes of the institute; it then proceeds to outline the 3 the similar institutions in Leipzig and Göttingen stand

scheme for the government of the institute. The Viceroy the universities in those cities.

is to be an ex-officio patron, and the heads of local LORD STRATHICONA has just presented the

of Governments of India are included as vice-patrons. There man te zu 10,000l. to the McGill University, Montreal, of which will be also a court of visitors, on which the Government ce, whine is Chancellor. Of this amount, 90,000l. is needed to of India and the Government of Mysore will be repreEl part ei omplete and equip the new medical buildings, the old sented, and Messrs. Tata, the sons of the benefactor, will mg tabo uildings having been destroyed by fire in 1907. The be members during their lives. The director-general of Et la semaining 10,00ol. is intended as a subscription to the education, the directors of public instruction to local CERES ind for increasing salaries throughout the University. Governments, and professors of the institute will be ex

At the meeting on June 28 of the council of the Uni- officio members. There will be a council of twelve, a indem ersity of Paris, the rector, M. Liard, announced, we senate, and a standing committee of the court of visitors. ach and earn from the "Revue scientifique, a gift by M. Henry

The council, on which four professors will serve, will be ical fa- Deutsch of 500,000 francs, and an annual grant of 15,000

the executive body of the institute, its proceedings being indusan rancs, towards a scheme for the creation of an aëro- subject, however, to review by the standing committee echnical institute. He also announced a donation from

referred to. There are

we learn from the same ds and in I. Basil Zakaroff of 700,000 francs for the foundation of

source, ample resources at the disposal of the governing products , main chair of aviation in the faculty of sciences of the

body of the institute. The sum available for initial exfor cu'niversity.

penditure includes building grants of 5 lakhs and 21 lakhs ories are · The Belfast University Commissioners have made the

respectively from the Mysore Durbar and the Government plaints i collowing, among other, appointments to professorships

of India respectively, with 1 lakhs from the Madras

Government to be spread over three years, and there are ind lectureships in the Queen's University of Belfast :Stugan irofessor of economics, Mr. Thomas Jones; professor of

in all 13 lakhs practically in hand. As the endowment

is on a liberal scale, the financial future of the institute titutes et notany, Mr. D. T. Gwynne-Vaughan ; lecturer in organic is assured. It may be added that the actual buildings are fact th: --hemistry, Dr. A. W. Stewart ; lecturer in physics, Dr. estimated to cost Rs. 6,57,000. combie Robert Jack; lecturer in bio-chemistry, Dr. J. A. Milroy ; in measuri ecturer in geology and geography, Dr. A. R. Dwerry

The new buildings of the University of Birmingham and its 1- 10use ; lecturer on hygiene, Dr. W. James Wilson.

were opened by the King and Queen yesterday as we went buildings in connection with the Merchant

to press. The following message upon this development I and Roventurers' Technical College, Bristol, were opened by

of university work has been sent by Mr. Chamberlain to 1 arphsLord Reay on June 24. The college will, for the future,

the Birmingham Gazette :--" The University formally herz'le mprovide the faculty of engineering in the newly established

opened by their Majesties in person to-day is the crownrowth rad University of Bristol, and in consequence of this arrange

ing point of the work undertaken by our city, and endows ment certain changes in the curriculum and time-table will

us with an institution we have long contemplated. His his l'st er in all probability come into effect at the beginning of

Majesty's consent to perform the opening ceremony is one new, but za next session. These probable modifications are outlined in

more example of his constant interest in all that concerns dern in a short illustrated prospectus of the day classes of the

the welfare of his subjects. It singularly enhances the is the smcollege which was published recently. There are depart

importance of the occasion and distinguishes with his prorigaments for the study of many branches of engineering.

Royal approval the work which has thus been accomand femper including civil, mechanical, electrical, mining, and motor

plished. Nothing in the history of education in this ; and to car engineering, the last-named subject being in charge of

country is more surprising than the recent growth of university institutions. Formerly

ancestors all per a special professor.

satisfied with the three universities of Oxford, Cambridge, A NEW departure has been made in connection with the and Durham in the whole of England and Wales; now dents faculty of engineering of the University of Liverpool. A in the last twenty years we have added to them other de l'especial course on refrigeration has been introduced into universities to provide for the wants of the towns and ite on that the honours school of mechanical engineering. The districts which are of provincial importance, and we have to the general theory and actual testing of refrigerating machines found that with the growth of these bodies has come the

is included in the course on heat engines, but, in the demand for instruction of the higher kind. Accordingly final year of an honours student's four years' work, a

towns a fully equipped university has been course of lectures and laboratory work on heat engines established, and higher education has been placed within DUCATI and refrigerators is provided. In addition, a special reach of all. By the generosity of our citizens and the optional

been arranged refrigerating munificence of some personal friends we in Birmingham machinery and cold storages, comprising the design of have been enabled to provide and equip the principal astronar refrigerating machinery, the construction of cold storages, technical departinents of our university on a scale which milar pos : ice-making plants, and the general practice of refrigeration. previously has been unattempted in this country; but what

This experiment, which constitutes, it is stated, the first we have accomplished is only the beginning. Much still general - attempt in this country to establish special instruction on remains to be done. The buildings are complete, and the refrigeration, will be watched with interest.

endowments are altogether inadequate; the foundations ointed to The programme of the Summer School of University

have been laid, but the building up of the structure lies Extension Students, which is to be held this year at

with the citizens of Birmingham." in the he retre

Oxford from July 30 to August 23, covers a sufficient A scheme is being developed to provide an interchange range of subjects to appeal to the most diverse tastes. of University students between the United Kingdom,

Pure science scarcely takes the prominent place accorded Canada, and the United States. The object is to provide ed from * to it in previous years; we notice, however, that one opportunities for as many as possible of the educated , which section of the work arranged is entitled Italy's Contribu- | youth of these countries to obtain some real insight into

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the life and customs of other nations at a time when their piano wires tested S was of the order 1, and for the own opinions are forming, with a minimum of incon- and brass wires of the order 1:5. The lengthening venience to their academic work and the least possible steel wire 0.97 mm. diameter and 2-3 metres long': expense,, with the view of broadening their conceptions twist of one turn in the length was about o-noly: and rendering them of greater economic and social value. This lengthening on twisting should be taken into a Lord Strathcona has consented to become president for

in accurate determinations of the rigidity.--The the United Kingdom. The list of vice-presidents includes motion of a revolving shaft and a suggestion as , the names of the Chancellors and Vice-Chancellors of angular momentum

beam of circularly px many British universities, the Prime Minister, the Lord light : J. H. Poynting. When a shaft of circular Chancellor, and other well-known men. A large and re- is revolving uniformly, and is transmitting power unit presentative committee has also been appointed. Additional a row of particles originally in a line parallel to the objects of the movement are to increase the value and will lie on a spiral of constant pitch, and the posi efficiency of present university training by the provision the shaft at any instant may be described by the pri of certain travelling scholarships for practical observation of this spiral. The motion of the spiral onwards i in other countries under suitable guidance. In addition to

regarded as a kind of wave motion. Its velocits * academic qualifications, the selected candidate is what is given speed of revolution will only be the popularly known as an " all-round man, the selection to velocity v(up) of twist waves, along the shaft ? be along the lines of the Rhodes scholarships. It is certain torque on the shaft. . For any other torust hoped to afford technical and industrial students facilities

velocitv is forced," and forces from outside the to examine into questions of particular interest to them applied to maintain it at every point where the or in manufactures, &c., by observation in other countries changing. The group velocity of waves of this kn and by providing them with introductions to leaders in Taking a uniformly revolving tube as a mich industrial activity. It is proposed to establish two students'

model of a beam of circularly polarised light, and ama. travelling bureaux, one in New York and one in London ;

that the relation between torque and energy holda to appoint an American secretary (resident in New York)

the model holds also for the beam of light, the and a British secretary (resident in London), to afford

momentum delivered per second to unit area of an die every facility to any graduate who wishes to visit the

ing surface upon which the light falls normally is PA United States, Canada, or the United Kingdom for the

where P is the pressure of the light and 1 is its purpose of obtaining an insight into the life of those length. In light-pressure experiments P is detected in countries. It is hoped to provide twenty-eight travelling torque produced on

a disc at the end of an arm scholarships, fourteen of these being available for universi

The value is therefore about 100.000 time di ties in the United Kingdom, ten for universities in America,

the torque on the same disc, due to the im and four sor universities in Canada. The total cost of

If the angular momentum

of cir the scheme, inclusive of the maintenance of two travelling polarised light only has this value, there does not in bureaux and the provision of twenty-eight scholarships per

to be much prospect of detecting it at present.-The . annum, is estimated at 13,500l. for a period of three years,

of a magnetic field on the electrical conductivity of fu equivalent to an annual expenditure of 4500l., the relative

Prof. H. A. Wilson. This paper contains an 300.-* annual expenditure being estimated at 2400l. in the United

some experiments on the change in the conductivity: Kingdom, 600l. in Canada, and 1500l. in the United States.

Bunsen flame produced by a magnetic field. The com Promises of support may be sent to the hon. secretary,

through the flame was horizontal, and the magnetic Mr. Henry W. Crees, at the University Club, Birming.

was also horizontal, but perpendicular to the current. ham, and it is hoped that all interested in promoting the

ratio of the potential gradient in the flame to the com

was taken as success of an educational scheme of far-reaching signifi

measure of its resistance. The in the English-speaking world will contribute

show that R'R= AHI? + BH, where H denotes the financially.

netic field, R the resistance, and A and B are come The velocity of the negative ions can be calculated

the term All, and the result is 9600 cm.' sec. for " SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES.

per cm., which agrees with Mr. E. Gold's results obt

by an entirely different method. The term BH G LONDON.

sumably due to the upward motion of the flame gaste Royal Society, June 24. -- Prof. J. rossar Ewart, vice- its value is about fifty times greater than the value ii president, in the chair.-Pressure perpendicular to the lated from the ionic theory:-Studies of the portas shear planes in finite pure shears, and on the lengthening operative in solutions; xi., the displacement of salts: of loaded wires when twisted : J. H. Poynting. When solution by various precipitants : Prof. H. E. Armstros

, a solid is subjected to a finite pure shear the lines of and Dr. J. V. Eyre.—The thermal conductivity of an greatest elongation and contraction are not the diagonals other gases : G. W. Todd. The paper gives an ar of the rhombus into which a square is sheared, but lines of a determination of the thermal conductivities in making, respectively, te't with the diagonals of the and other gases at atmospheric pressure. The cond. square, where e is the angle of shear, and these lines was obtained from observations of the steady flow of are at right angles to the order of c. If we assume that between two horizontal circular metal plates maista a pressure P is put on along the lines of greatest con- at different temperatures, the upper one at the temps traction, and a tension Q along the lines of greatest of steam and the lower one at room temperature, elongation, we may put P= ue + pe?, Q=ue-- Dea, where u upper plate was fixed, and the lower one could be is the rigidity and P is a constant to the second order of €. up and down so as to vary the distance between For equilibrium a pressure R=(iu + ple’ is required per- If the temperatures of the plates are kept constar: pendicular to the shear planes. This is zero only if quantity of heat passing per second from the upper? p=-{u, a supposition for which there is no apparent to the lower, when the distance between them is i

To keep constant volume a stress may be needed given by Q=K'x+R+Ex, where the constant KST S=qe perpendicular to the plane containing P and Q, a portional to the thermal conductivity. R is the pressure if 9 is positive. Suppose that a wire is twisted radiated, and Ex is the effect due to the edge. The by a torque with axis along the axis of the wire. To keep is negligible when x is small compared with the radu. the volume constant at every point it would be necessary the plates, so that the relation between Q and ris to apply the system of forces R and S from outside. If bv a rectangular hyperbola. Hence the relation bet" this system is not applied we may expect the wire to O and i'x is a straight line the slope of which girat change in length and diameter by amounts calculable in from which the conductivity is determined. The terms of the elastic constants. The change in length section of this line with the axis of Q gives the role should be an increase dl=Sa-92/1, where S is a function of the radiation. The value of the conductivity so obor of the constants, given in the paper, a is the radius, and was independent of the nature of the surfaces of the o!. 9 is the twist in length 1. Such a lengthening has been and also independent of the dimensions of the plates found to exist for piano-strel, copper, and brass wires | latter proving that convection currents were absen: when loaded enough to straighten out kinks. For the negligible. The conductivities of some gases Other :





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were determined by comparing the rates of now of ceeding very slowly. No similar property is possessed by

through them with the rate of flow through air when glucose or mannose. These properties of fructose indicate plates were at a fixed distance apart. The paper con- that this sugar when added to yeast-juice does not act

es with a calculation of the “radiation constant," from merely as a substrate to be fermented, but bears some When a 22 possible ancestors of the horses living under domestica

termination of the absorption coefficient of the surfaces specific relation to the fermenting complex. All the facts he plates when painted black, and the radiation R.- are consistent with the supposition that fructose actually

forms a part of the fermenting complex. When the conlista del paved that domestic horses are the descendants of a part i. : Dr. J. C. Ewart. By some naturalists it centration of this sugar is increased, a greater quantity

of the complex would be formed, and, as the result of this stocene species (Equus fossilis)-now represented by the increase in the concentration of the active catalytic agent, | horse (E. preewalskii) of Mongolia-by others, the the juice would become capable of bringing about the rezes living under domestication are said to be a blend action with sugar in presence of phosphate at a higher

i coarse-headed northern species allied to Prejvalsky's rate, and at the same time the optimum concentration of 1255 doric times inhabited North Africa, or se, and a fine-limbed southern species which' in pre- phosphate would become greater, exactly as is observed. blend of a

applied 1979 fm ely allied to E. sivalensis of the Pliocene deposits of current : C. Ruse. The aim of these experiments was to 3* ia.

, of horses found at Roman settlements" and in the transmitted during electrolysis to either electrode, with the

nity of pile-dwellings indicates that domestic horses view of the recovery of pathogenic bacteria from a pathomit ginally belonged to several distinct types, viz. (1) a logical fluid by such means. During electrolysis of certain

? characterised by long limbs, by a long face, broad salts in which bacteria were suspended, the organisms

convex between the orbits, and strongly deflected on were found to migrate to one electrode ; in some instances cranium, and by the crown of the fourth premolar there was no migration. The effect was noticed to occur ig from before backwards about 2.5 times the length with killed as well as with living bacteria. By testing the grinding surface of its “pillar”; (2) a type with certain organismis in the same (but a small) series of der limbs, a fine, narrow, slightly deflected face, and electrolytes some differences of effect were found, though crown of the fourth premolar about three times the this line of inquiry was not pursued.

To utilise this Ith of its pillar”; (3) a type with fairly slender bacterial movement, an electrolyte in which tubercle bacilli bs, a long, narrow, somewhat deflected face, and the had shown marked kathodic aggregation was added to wn of the fourth premolar about twice the length of tuberculous urine, and the kathode arranged in the form

pillar”; (4) a type characterised by short, broad of a bacterial trap. After electrolysis tubercle bacilli acarpals, a short face, broad and flat between the entered the trap, which was eventually withdrawn, and the its, and nearly in a line with the cranium, and by the organisms recognised in a stained film prepared from its wn of the fourth premolar being twice the length of contents. A series of such urines was tested in this way, 'pillar "; and (5) a type with short, wide metacarpals,

and in each case tubercle bacilli were found in the trap. face long and strongly deflected, and the crown of the In the final experiment a number of tubercle bacilli rth premolar about 1.5 times the length of its “ pillar." (estimated at 500) were added to 100 c.c. normal urine, and ly the varieties characterised by molars with short their detection attempted by separate_investigators by illars” are dealt with in this communication. The means of the centrifuge and current. By the centrifuge sible ancestors of the short-pillared varieties are Equus none were found, while the current recovered 128 bacilli. alensis of Indian Pliocene deposits, E. stenonis of the The results of this preliminary investigation may be sumocene deposits of Europe and North Africa, and a new marised as follows :-Certain bacteria under the influence cies, E. gracilis. Arabs, barbs, thoroughbreds, and of a suitable current aggregate at one or other electrode. er modern breeds with a long deflected face, broad and The aggregation varies with the nature of the electrolyte, minent between the orbits, and the limbs slender, seem and is probably due to affinity between the products of

have mainly sprung from E. sivalensis, while certain electrolysis and the bacteria. It occurs with killed as well improved breeds with a deflected face, but very short as with living bacteria. The aggregation by electrical pillars, are probably related to E. stenonis. Exmoor, currents affords a means of collection and examination. bridean, Iceland, and other ponies of the “ Celtic" type, The differences in behaviour of various bacteria are such well as ponies found in the south of France, the West as to suggest the possibility of utilising the method for lies, and Mexico, characterised by a fine narrow skull, purposes of specific discrimination, but in this particular nder limbs, and the absence of ergots and hind chest- the data hitherto obtained are not sufficient to warrant ts, are regarded as the descendants of E. gracilis, which definite statements.—The effect of the injection of the intra:ludes (1) the small species of the English drift described cellular constituents of bacteria (bacterial endotoxins) on

Owen as a fossil ass or zebra (Asinus fossilis); (2) the the opsonising action of the serum of healthy rabbits : Dr. all species of French Pliocene and Pleistocene deposits R. Tanner Hewlett. In this investigation the effect of

to palæontologists as E. ligeris, and the small the endotoxins of the Bacillus typhosus, Micrococcus ecies of North African Pleistocene deposits known as pyogenes aureus, and B. tuberculosis on the opsonising

asinus atlanticus, and hitherto believed to be closely action of the serum of normal rabbits has been studied. ated to, if not the ancestor of, zebras of the Burchell | The endotoxins were prepared by the Macfadyen process,

By crossing experiments evidence has been obtained the rabbits were inoculated subcutaneously, and the specithe wide distribution of horses of the E. gracilis type ; mens for counting the number of bacteria ingested by it broad-browed Arabs and thoroughbreds, with the face leucocytes were prepared in the usual manner. Human arly in a line with the cranium, are mainly a blend of a leucocytes were employed, and the counts were made on uthern variety of E. gracilis (E. caballus libycus) and a fifty cells. (A) Typhoid Endotoxin.--The results for this .rse of the forest"

or Solutré type, and that heavy endotoxin are approximate only, as agglutination and eeds have not inherited their coarse limbs from a species bacteriolysis are complicating factors. The amount of jsely allied to the wild horse of Mongolia.-The alcoholic endotoxin injected was mgrm., prepared from an "ment of yeast-juice : part iv., the fermentation of avirulent strain. One day after injection a decided negative ucose, mannose, and fructose by yeast-juice : A. Harden phase had developed (opsonic index about 0-2), two days d W. J. Young. (1) Mannose behaves towards yeast- after injection the index was rising (1.4), and attained a ice, both in the presence and in the absence of added maximum on the third day (3:3), after which it fell. Diluosphates, substantially in the same manner as glucose. tion of the serum to 1 in 5 and 1 in 10 tended to increase | Fructose resembles both glucose and mannose in its phagocytosis. (B) Staphylococcus Endotoxin.-Endotoxin haviour. but in presence of phosphate is fermented much prepared from an old laboratory strain in a dose of ore rapidly than these sugars, and the optimum concen- 0.1 mgrm. produced a rise in the opsonic index to 1.6, ation of phosphate is much higher. (3) Fructose has which persisted for some weeks. Endotoxin (0.1 mgrm.) e property of inducing rapid fermentation in presence of prepared from a recently isolated strain produced a rise to ast-juice in solutions of glucose and mannose, containing 2.5. An equivalent dose of staphylococcus vaccine ch an excess of phosphate that fermentation is only pro- (1000 X 10% cocci) produced a rise of the opsonic index to




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1.8, which fell subsequently to a point lower than that due to the experimental arrangement, but was a real with either endotoxin. Estimations of the opsonic indexes The fact that the B rays from uranium, actinius made with the recently isolated strain gave results higher are absorbed by matter according to an exponential, than those obtained using the old strain. With another shown to be a proof, not of their homogeneity, endotoxin, varying doses (0.1, 0.01, and 0.001 mgrm.) all their heterogeneity. Groups of rays can be built up produced marked rise in the opsonic indexes, the rise corre- represent the properties of these rays with resp sponding with the dose. (c) Tubercle Endotoxin.-Injection absorption. Further experiments were made on the of 0.002 mgrm. of endotoxin caused a rise in the opsonic of velocity of the rays after passing through, as index to 1.9 sixteen days after. A similar dose of German material, and it was found that the velocity of De tuberculin R. produced hardly any effect. A large dose contrary to the view expressed by H. 1. Schz).. (1.0 mgrm.) of endotoxin caused a marked negative phase appreciably reduced as they penetrate matter. The. (index 0.5) forty-eight hours after injection, with a sub- absorption of the B particles when measured by the sequent rise to 1.8. Endotoxin (1.0 mgrm.) prepared from tion method involves a considerable number of fa tubercle bacilli previously extracted with ether also pro- and, as might be expected, no simple relation coduced a negative phase, with a subsequent rise to 1.5. found between the absorption of the rays and their re (1) Keeping Power of Endotoxin Solutions.-Experiments --Experimental researches on vegetable assimila: were performed with staphylococcus and tubercle endotoxin respiration ; v., a critical examination of Sachs' solutions which had been kept for seven weeks after pre- for using increase of dry weight as a measure of a paration ; there was little diminution in activity. Other dioxide assimilation in leaves : D. Thoday.--The res experiments indicate that the solutions deteriorate but little tion and early development of Laminaria digitais for three to six months after preparation. (E) Negative | Laminaria saccharina : G. H. Drew.

The proces Phase.”—Experiments indicate that endotoxin produces reproduction and early development in both L. di decidedly less “negative phase than a vaccine.-The and L. saccharina are very similar. The plant occurrence of protandric hermaphroditism in Crepidula gametophyte, and is monecious. The reproductive fornicata : J. H. Orton. Crepidula fornicata is

as dark patches on the lamina, and streptoneurous gastropod belonging to the family Calyp- gametangia embedded among paraphyses. The $27.træidæ. Individuals of this species associate together contain small spherical gametes, 0.003 mm. in d.a. permanently in linear series, forming chains."

The and a number of globules of an oily substance. chains may consist of from two to twelve individuals. The mature, the gametangia rupture at their distal est ses relations of the individuals were noted in about 300 and liberate their contents. . The liberated gametes chains. It was found that the individuals which occur two flagella of different lengths, which are inserted at the attached ends of the chains are always females, together; they are phototactic, and move in the da: those occurring near the top of the chains are males, while of the longer flagellum. Cultures from the reprod those about the middle often possess the secondary sexual areas were made in a culture solution consisting of 52: characters of both sexes. In intermediate positions in the salts dissolved in sea water. The solution was sts chains occur forms which, in their secondary sexual by heat, and all flasks, pipettes, &c., were sterilis characters, are intermediate between females and herma- boiling. Division cultures containing the planog.?? phrodites on the one hand, and between hermaphrodites were made, and eventually cultures free from gros** and males on the other. Thus the chains present a tran- the Ectocarpaceæ and other algæ were obtained. lsitional series, beginning with the males, which are the cultures, stages of isogamous conjugation, resulting youngest individuals and ending with the females, which spherical zygospore, were observed. Later a process are the oldest individuals. Microscopical examination of out from the zygospore, and expanded at its end, an. the gonad has shown that there is as complete a tran- the cell contents passed along this process, forte: sitional series in the primary sexual characters as occurs spherical mass at the expanded end. This became c. in the secondary ones. All the adults are sedentary, but by a cell wall, and the emains of the zv gospo? the young are able to move about freely. One thousand | generated. The cell thus formed developed chrom young ones have been examined, and found to be all males. increased in size, and divided, producing typically a There is, therefore, no doubt that all the individuals begin of cells each having an outer and an inner cell wall. life as males, and change gradually in the course of their stage probably represents the sporophyte (23) genit life-history into females. It is highly probable, from known Any cell of the chain may then rupture its outer ceil descriptions of allied species, and from observation on and by repeated divisions give rise to the launinaria; species of allied genera, that protandric hermaphroditism which emerges from the ruptured exosporium.

The ? is common in the Calyptræidæ. Further, it seems probable plant consists of a flattened lamina inade up of c. that the family will present a series in the evolution of cells, having at its base a number of colourless unin protandric hermaphroditism. If such a series be found rhizoids. The stipe is developed from the basal part there is little doubt that a study of the earlier stages would lamina. The disc-shaped expansion develops at the lead to the discovery of the nature of the sexes, i.e. in of the stipe and partially envelops the primary rh Mendelian terms, whether the male is heterozygous and the hapteres arise as outgrowths from this disthe female homozygous, or vice versa. Ten other strepto- germicidal action of metals, and its relation to the neurous hermaphrodites are known. It would seem, there- duction of peroxide of hydrogen : Dr. A. C. Rankin fore, that one of the chief distinctions between the Strepto- Surface flow in calcite : G. T. Beilby.-A preliminar neura and the Euthyneura is beginning to break down.- Trypanosoma eberthi (Kent)-(Spirochaeta Sensitive micro-balances, and a new method of weighing Lühe), and some other parasitic forms from the ir minute quantities : B. D. Steele and K. Grant.--The of the fowl : C. H. Martin and Miss Muriel Roberts: polarisation of secondary ravs: Dr. R. D. Kleeman.- —The spectrum of magnesium hydride : Prof. A. Fow The absorption of homogeneous B rays by matter, and on The author has previously discovered that the variation of the absorption of the rays with velocity : band lines peculiar to the sun-spot spectrum are if W'. Wilson, The experiments were made with the view of with lines composing the green Nuting attrib: determining the manner in which the absorption coefficient magnesium hydride by Liveing and Dewar.

Thes of the Bravs varies with the velocity. Radium, which paper gives the results of a further investigation » gives out rare the velocities of which vary between very spectrum with high dispersion, together with desi wide limits, was used as a source of radiation. A beam of wave-length determinations. The principal results mr. ravs from the radium passed into a magnetic field, by briefly summarised as follows :-(1) No sufficient means of which approximately homogeneous rars could be has been found for modifying Liveing and Dewar': brought into an electroscope. The velocities of the rays clusion that the spectrum is produced by the corrcould be determined from the strength of the magnetic of magnesium with hydrogen. (2) Lines are shor field. Screens of metal of different thicknesses were inter- short intervals in all parts of the spectrum from posed in the path of the ravs, and it was found that the extreme red to 1 2300, and definite groups of 3. 1.a w of absorption was not exponential, but approximately begin at 5621:57, 5211•11, 4844.92, 4371.2, and nea?.. linear, except for large thicknesses of absorbing material. (3) From photographs of the magnesium arc in hrd Various experiments were made to show that this was not at low pressures, taken with a 10-feet concave grating



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