« PreviousContinue »
trial chemistry? Are not such considerations as economy to a sum sufficient to pay the aggregate national of energy in its various forms, high yields, and the avoid of all the civilised nations.' Uncivilised nations are bec ing, or, if unavoidable, the utilisation of bye-products the with neither national debts nor heat-regenerating a fundamental principles which we try to instil into the mind of the young chemist about to begin his career as a My last comparison between biology and applied or manufacturer? The history of applied chemistry is teem- istry 1 should like to choose from a chapter which ing with examples where the survival of the fittest means might call biological sociology, though I am neither more nor less than a victory of economy.
that that name is commonly given to it. It treats of We all know that that marvellous creation of human wonderful phenomena of symbiosc and aggregation. ingenuity, the closed ring of industrial chemical processes Symbiosis is, as we now know, of very frequent c1 working in connection with Leblanc's method of pro- rence. Plants or animals of totally different nature ducing soda, is practically extinct on the Continent and organisation, or even plants and animals, may, corsi materially reduced in its importance in England. This for joint life and activity with the object of helping :1 fate it had to suffer, because it was a wasteful process, protecting each other in the great struggle for existe wasteful in its utilisation of material and wasteful in its What neither of them would be able to fulfil or consumption of energy. The skill and resource exerted by its own strength and power they can do with i in its invention and constant improvement will for ever and certainty in their faithful allegiance. Gregard be gratefully remembered; but thcy were unable to check ness—the flocking together of organisms of the same & the progress of the Solvay process, which is more -arises from the same spirit of mutual help and prote economical in its use of energy, and of the electrolytic tion. methods for splitting up the alkaline chlorides, which pro- There is a great deal in human life and institutions. duce no bye-products.
our morals, politics, and science, which reminds us t'i The progress of industrial chemistry does not always the human race, as an intrinsic part of animated nat.. depend on the introduction of more perfect, but also more has also inherited its all-pervading tendency for combicomplicated, machinery and plant into the factories. Of forces; and what is thus apparent in the doings, of course, every chemical process requires thorough working kind in general cannot be absent in the special fielt out from a mechanical point of view, and many of the activity which forms the object of our exertions. most brilliant successes of our modern chemical industry | various forms of chemical industry
essen: are mainly due to a clever adaptation of mechanical means symbiotic. They depend upon each other for their sucou to a chemical end; but, taken as a whole, the real and progress. A solitary chemical factory in a progress of the chemical industry does not so much consist otherwise devoid of chemical industry is prac: 1 in the improvement of the apparatus as in the simplifica- | impossibility, Chemical works come in shoals if t1 tion of the fundamental chemical reactions. More than come at all. The maker of acids and alkalis wants out once a seemingly insignificant chemical alteration of an chemical enterprises to use his products, and these, aga industrial process has produced the same or a better effect are constantly on the look out for customers.
The ! than the introduction of the most ingenious and costly varied and numerous the factories are, the more ti plant.
prosper, in spite of their complaints of growing any That the great principle of economy is not only applic- petition. able to the material necessary for carrying out chemical The chemists themselves are gregarious. They become reactions, but perhaps even more to the energy consumed societies and academies and institutes and syndicates i by them, is a distinctly modern idea. It is not so very the score, and who can deny the fact that brilliant red long since we have begun to have, if I may say so, have been achieved by such combinations of force a conscience for fuel. Previous generations took it for If we remember, in terms of unmeasured gratitude, 1 granted that industrial work consumed coal, and that
great originators of our science and its applications, 1 the necessary coal had to be provided and to be paid for. cannot forget the help rendered to its progress by se We are now awake to the fact that the quantity of fuel institutions as the Royal Society and Royal Instituta required for an industrial process is very much dependent the French, Italian, and German academies, the leat-7 on the way in which it is made to do its work.
chemical societies, and the innumerable universities in a Of course, the calorimetric effect of any given fuel is parts of the world, the rapid growth and extension a constant, and it is also true that we can never utilise which is the true gauge of our progress. more than a certain proportion of it; but this proportion Last, but I hope not least, in this list of brilliant azz may vary, considerably. "It was alarmingly small 'almost gations stand our congresses as a new, but most successfu through the whole of the nineteenth century, and we may creation. They represent a modern form of symbice congratulate ourselves upon its present ascendent tendency effort amongst chemists, which is the more remarkab A striking example of the transformation of our views because it is international. They proclaim the great tr. about fuel and its proper use is the history of the smoke that science knows no boundaries and frontiers, that : question. There was a time, both in England and on the joint property of all humanity, and that its adherer the Continent, when smoke was considered a necessary are ready to flock together from all parts of the wel evil which had to be suffered. After a while smoke began for mutual help and progress. It is the great truth 67 to be looked upon as a nuisance, and war was declared claimed by one of our past presidents, Marcellin Berat against it by those who suffered from its disagreeable lot_“ La science est la bienfaitrice de l'humanité entière properties; but now we know that smoke is a waste, and which our congresses might write on their banner, that nobody has better cause to wage war against it than he who produces it. A smoking chimney does not only
it expresses the spirit which led to their foundations
ensures their success. carry visible unburned carbon into the atmosphere, but in nine cases out of ten also invisible carbonic oxide and methane, with all the latent energy they contain. Smoking UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL chimneys are thieves, and their misdeeds should not rise unavenged to heaven.
INTELLIGENCE. But even chimneys that are innocent of incomplete com- Dr. H. KOBOLD, professor of astronomy at the K1 bustion may be guilty of stealing energy if they allow University, has been called to the similar post at Berlin. the gases of combustion to escape into the atmosphere MR. J. E. BARNARD has been appointed lecturer y with a higher temperature than is necessary to activate the draught.
microscopy in the department of general pathology a The lost energy of such gases may be bacteriology, King's College, London. trapped and recovered by the regenerating and recuperating apparatus now so largely used by many industries. Re
Dr. G. S. West has been appointed to the chair generative gas-heating is not only a sure prevention of
botany and vegetable physiology in the University smoke, but also the most powerfuỉ means of economising Birmingham, rendered vacant by the retirement of Pr: heat, and therefore one of the greatest acquisitions of
Hillhouse. modern industry. It is perhaps not saying too much that PROF. W. W. Payne has retired from the chair the saving of national wealth effected by it may amount astronomy at Goodsell Observatory, which he founded :
arleton College, Northfield (Minn.), in 1877, but retains tion to Science," and will include lectures on Galileo, e co-editorship of Popular Astronomy. Dr. H. Wilson, Vesalius and others, by such well-known authorities as s co-worker, has been appointed to the professorship. Prof. Osler, Prof. A. Macalister, and Mr. Marconi. In DR. C. GORDON Hewitt has accepted the appointment
addition to the general course on Italy, lectures and classes entomologist to the Dominion of Canada in succession
have been organised for economic and political science, and the late Dr. James Fletcher, and has resigned, in con
a special class on practical map-making will be conducted quence, his post as lecturer in economic zoology in the
by Mr. N. F. MacKenzie. Application for tickets, and niversity of Manchester.
all inquiries in connection with the meeting, should be He will leave England in
addressed to Mr. J. A. R. Marriott, University Extension ptember to take up his new duties at Ottawa.
Office, Examination Schools, Oxford. We learn from the Westminster Gazette that the heirs
We learn from the Pioneer Mail that a vesting order the late Herr Heinrich Lanz, head of the Mannheim gineering firm, have given a million marks for the
relating to the Tata Research Institute has been issued.
The order recapitulates the bequests of the late Mr. Tata, tablishment of an academy of sciences at Heidelberg,
and enumerates other gifts which have been made for the nich will stand in the same relation to the university the similar institutions in Leipzig and Göttingen stand
purposes of the institute; it then proceeds to outline the the universities in those cities.
scheme for the government of the institute. The Viceroy
is to be an ex-officio patron, and the heads of local LORD STRATHCONA has just presented the of Governments of India are included as vice-patrons. There 0,000l. to the McGill University, Montreal, of which will be also a court of visitors, on which the Government
is Chancellor. Of this amount, 90,000l. is needed to of India and the Government of Mysore will be repremplete and equip the new medical buildings, the old sented, and Messrs. Tata, the sons of the benefactor, will lildings having been destroyed by fire in 1907. The be members during their lives. The director-general of maining 10,000l. is intended as a subscription to the education, the directors of public instruction to local nd for increasing salaries throughout the University. Governments, and professors of the institute will be exAt the meeting on June 28 of the council of the Uni
officio members. There will be a council of twelve, a rsity of Paris, the rector, M. Liard, announced, we
senate, and a standing committee of the court of visitors. arn from the Revue scientifique, a gift by M. Henry
The council, on which four professors will serve, will be eutsch of 500,000 francs, and an annual grant of 15,000
the executive body of the institute, its proceedings being ancs, towards a scheme for the creation of an aëro
subject, however, to review by the standing committee chnical institute. He also announced a donation from
referred to. There are
we learn from the same · Basil Zakaroff of 700,000 francs for the foundation of
source, ample resources at the disposal of the governing chair of aviation in the faculty of sciences of the
body of the institute. The sum available for initial exniversity.
penditure includes building grants of 5 lakhs and 2 lakhs
respectively from the Mysore Durbar and the Government THE Belfast University Commissioners have made the
of India respectively, with 1 lakhs from the Madras llowing, among other, appointments to professorships Government to be spread over three years, and there are id lectureships in the Queen's University of Belfast :ofessor of economics, Mr. Thomas Jones; professor of is on a liberal scale, the financial future of the institute
in all 13 lakhs practically in hand. As the endowment tany, Mr. D. T. Gwynne-Vaughan ; lecturer in organic is assured. It may be added that the actual buildings are hemistry, Dr. A. W. Stewart ; lecturer in physics, Dr. estimated to cost Rs. 6,57,000. obert Jack; lecturer in bio-chemistry, Dr. J. A. Milroy ; cturer in geology and geography, Dr. A. R. Dwerry
The new buildings of the University of Birmingham juse; lecturer on hygiene, Dr. W. James Wilson.
were opened by the King and Queen yesterday as we went New buildings in connection with the Merchant
to press. The following message upon this development enturers' Technical College, Bristol, were opened by
of university work has been sent by Mr. Chamberlain to ord Reay on June 24. The college will, for the future,
the Birmingham Gazette :-" The University, formally rovide the faculty of engineering in the newly established opened by their Majesties in person to-day is the crown
ing point of the work undertaken by our city, and endows 'niversity of Bristol, and in consequence of this arrange- us with an institution we have long contemplated. His lent certain changes in the curriculum and time-table will
Majesty's consent to perform the opening ceremony is one | all probability come into effect at the beginning of
more example of his constant interest in all that concerns ext session. These probable modifications are outlined in
the welfare of his subjects. It singularly enhances the short illustrated prospectus of the day classes of the ollege which was published recently. There are depart Royal approval the work which has thus been accom
importance of the occasion and distinguishes with his lents for the study of many branches of engineering, icluding civil, mechanical, electrical, mining, and motor
plished. Nothing in the history of education in this ar engineering, the last-named subject being in charge of
country is more surprising than the recent growth of
university institutions. Formerly our ancestors special professor.
satisfied with the three universities of Oxford, Cambridge, A new departure has been made in connection with the and Durham in the whole of England and Wales; now iculty of engineering of the University of Liverpool. A in the last twenty years we have added to them other pecial course on refrigeration has been introduced into universities to provide for the wants of the towns and he honours school of mechanical engineering. The districts which are of provincial importance, and we have eneral theory and actual testing of refrigerating machines found that with the growth of these bodies has come the ; included in the course on heat engines, but, in the demand for instruction of the higher kind. Accordingly nal year of an honours student's four years' work, a in many
a fully equipped university has been ourse of lectures and laboratory work on heat engines established, and higher education has been placed within nd refrigerators is provided. In addition, a special reach of all. By the generosity of our citizens and the ptional course has been arranged refrigerating munificence of some personal friends we in Birmingham iachinery and cold storages, comprising the design of have been enabled to provide and equip the principal efrigerating machinery, the construction of cold storages, technical departinents of our university on a scale which e-making plants, and the general practice of refrigeration. previously has been unattempted in this country ; but what 'his experiment, which constitutes, it is stated, the first we have accomplished is only the beginning. Much still ttempt in this country to establish special instruction on remains to be done. The buildings are complete, and the efrigeration, will be watched with interest.
endowments are altogether inadequate; the foundations The programme of the Summer School of University
have been laid, but the building up of the structure lies Extension Students, which is to be held this year at
with the citizens of Birmingham.". Oxford from July 30 to August 23, covers a sufficient A SCHEME is being developed to provide an interchange ange of subjects to appeal to the most diverse tastes. of University students between the United Kingdom, 'ure science scarcely takes the prominent place accorded Canada, and the United States. The object is to provide ) it in previous years; we notice, however, that one opportunities for as many as possible of the educated Pction of the work arranged is entitled “ Italy's Contribu- | youth of these countries to obtain some real insight into
the life and customs of other nations at a time when their piano wires tested S was of the order 1, and for the own opinions are forming, with a minimum of incon- and brass wires of the order 1.5. The lengthening venience to their academic work and the least possible steel wire 0.97 mm. diameter and 2.3 metres long expense, with the view of broadening their conceptions twist of one turn in the length was about 9-0019 and rendering them of greater economic and social value. This lengthening on twisting should be taken into acum Lord Strathcona has consented to become president for in accurate determinations of the rigidity.--The the United Kingdom. The list of vice-presidents includes motion of a revolving shaft and a suggestion as to the names of the Chancellors and Vice-Chancellors of angular momentum in a beam of circularly, pol many British universities, the Prime Minister, the Lord light : J. H. Poynting. When a shaft of circular -sti Chancellor, and other well-known men. A large and re- is revolving uniformly. and is transmitting power unifor presentative committee has also been appointed. Additional a row of particles originally in a line parallel to the objects of the movement are to increase the value and will lie on a spiral of constant pitch, and the positio. efficiency of present university training by the provision the shaft at any instant may be described by the posay of certain travelling scholarships for practical observation of this spiral. The motion of the spiral onwards me" in other countries under suitable guidance. In addition to
regarded as a kind of wave motion. Its - velocity academic qualifications, the selected candidate is what is given speed of revolution will only be the popularly known as an “all-round" man, the selection to velocity 1 (up) of twist waves, along the shaft for be along the lines of the Rhodes scholarships. It is certain torque on the shaft. For any other torque hoped to afford technical and industrial students facilities velocity is '" forced," and forces from outside me to examine into questions of particular interest to them applied to maintain it at every point where the tek in manufactures, &c., by observation in other countries changing: The group velocity of waves of this wall and by providing them with introductions to leaders in zero. Taking a uniformly revolving tube as a mecha: industrial activity. It is proposed to establish two students' model of a beam of circularly polarised light, and assus travelling bureaux, one in New York and one in London ; that the relation between torque and energy holding to appoint an American secretary (resident in New York) | the model holds also for the beam of light, the ans and a British secretary (resident in London), to afford momentum delivered per second to unit area of an a.. every facility to any graduate who wishes to visit the ing surface upon which the light falls normally is PA United States, Canada, or the United Kingdom for the
where P is the pressure of the light and 1 is its 7. purpose of obtaining an insight into the life of those length. In light-pressure experiments P is detected by a countries. It is hoped to provide twenty-eight travelling torque produced on a disc at the end of an arma's scholarships, fourteen of these being available for universi
The value is therefore about 100,000 times ! ties in the United Kingdom, ten for universities in America,
as the torque on the same disc, due to the and four for universities in Canada. The total cost of momentum. If the angular momentum of cini the scheme, inclusive of the maintenance of two travelling polarised light only has this value, there does not apo bureaux and the provision of twenty-eight scholarships per
to be much prospect of detecting it at present.-The ** annum, is estimated at 13,500l. for a period of three years,
of a magnetic field on the electrical conductivity of faequivalent to an annual expenditure of 4500l., the relative
Prof. H. A. Wilson. This paper contains an accour annual expenditure being estimated at 2400l. in the United
some experiments on the change in the conductivity Kingdom, 6ool. in Canada, and 1500l. in the United States.
Bunsen Aame produced by a magnetic field. The com Promises of support may be sent to the hon. secretary,
through the flame was horizontal, and the magnetic S Mr. Henry W. Crees, at the University. Club, Birming: ratio of the potential gradient in the flame to the cura
was also horizontal, but perpendicular to the current. I ham, and it is hoped that all interested in promoting the success of an educational scheme of far-reaching signifi
was taken as a measure of its resistance. The mad! in the English-speaking world will contribute
show that 8R/R=AH? +BH, where H denotes the ray financially.
netic field, R the resistance, and A and B are consta The velocity of the negative ions can be calculated and
the term AH’, and the result is 9600 cm. / sec. for ! SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES.
per cm., which agrees with Mr. E. Gold's results obta
by an entirely different method. The term BH is LONDON.
sumably due to the upward motion of the flame gases Royal Society, June 24.--Prof. J. rossar Ewart, vice- its value is about fifty times greater than the value cir; president, in the chair.-Pressure perpendicular to the lated from the ionic theory.-Studies of the proce shear planes in finite pure shears, and on the lengthening operative in solutions ; xi., the displacement of salts ... of loaded wires when twisted : J. H. Poynting. When solution by various precipitants : Prof. H. E. Armstror a solid is subjected to a finite pure shear the lines of and Dr. J. V. Eyre.—The thermal conductivity of air . greatest elongation and contraction are not the diagonals other gases: G. W. Todd. The paper gives an arri of the rhombus into which a square is sheared, but lines of a determination of the thermal conductivities : making, respectively, 16/4 with the diagonals of the and other gases at atmospheric pressure. The conduct": square, where e is the angle of shear, and these lines was obtained from observations of the steady flow of are at right angles to the order of e". If we assume that between two horizontal circular metal plates mainion a pressure P is put on along the lines of greatest con- at different temperatures, the upper one at the temperam traction, and a tension Q along the lines of greatest of steam and the lower one at room temperature. elongation, we may put P=ue + pe', Q=ue-pe", where u upper plate was fixed, and the lower one could be gran is the rigidity and p is a constant to the second order of e. up and down so as to vary the distance between the For equilibrium a pressure R=(du+p)eo is required per- If the temperatures of the plates are kept constant. pendicular to the shear planes. This is zero only if quantity of heat passing per second from the upper si p=-ju, a supposition for which there is no apparent to the lower, when the distance between them is : reason. To keep constant volume a stress may be needed given by Q=Kx+R+ Ex, where the constant Kiss S=qe perpendicular to the plane containing P and Q, a portional to the thermal conductivity, R is the bi pressure if q is positive. Suppose that a wire is twisted radiated, and Ex is the effect due to the edge. The la by a torque with axis along the axis of the wire. To keep is negligible when x is small compared with the radiu. the volume constant at every point it would be necessary the plates, so that the relation between Q and x is g to apply the system of forces R and S from outside. If | bv a rectangular hyperbola. Hence the relation bets. this system is not applied we may expect the wire to O and 1x is a straight line the slope of which gives change in length and diameter by amounts calculable in from which the conductivity is determined. The first terms of the elastic constants. The change in length section of this line with the axis of gives the valu should be an increase dl=Sa A2/1, where S is a function of the radiation. The value of the conductivity so obta: of the constants, given in the paper, a is the radius, and was independent of the nature of the surfaces of the pla: o is the twist in length 1. Such a lengthening has been and also independent of the dimensions of the plates, 1 found to exist for piano-steel, copper, and brass wires latter proving that convection currents were absen when loaded enough to straighten out kinks. For the negligible. The conductivities of some gases other
pere determined by comparing the rates of flow of ceeding very slowly. No similar property is possessed by through them with the rate of how through air when | glucose or mannose: These properties of fructose indicate lates were at a fixed distance apart. The paper cons with a calculation of the “ radiation constant,” from
that this sugar when added to yeast-juice does not act ermination of the absorption coefficient of the surfaces
merely as a substrate to be fermented, but bears some specific relation to the fermenting complex. All the facts
are consistent with the supposition that fructose actually possible ancestors of the horse's living under domestica- forms a part of the fermenting complex. When the conlieved that domestic horses are the descendants of a part i.: Dr. J. C. Ewart. By some naturalists it centration of this sugar is increased, a greater quantity
of the complex would be formed, and, as the result of this focene species (Equus fossilis)-now represented by the increase in the concentration of the active catalytic agent, horse (E. przewalskií) of Mongolia-by others, the the juice would become capable of bringing about the res living under domestication are said to be a blend action with sugar in presence of phosphate at a higher
coarse-headed northern species allied to Prejvalsky's rate, and at the same time the optimum concentration of ; and a fine-limbed southern species which'in pre- phosphate would become greater, exactly as is observed. ric times inhabited North Africa, or
a blend of a -The electrical reactions of certain bacteria applied to the jalsky-like northern species and a southern species detection of tubercle bacilli in urine by means of an electric ly allied to E. sivalensis of the Pliocene deposits of current : C. Ruse. The aim of these experiments was to
The examination of the skull, teeth, and limb ascertain whether bacteria suspended in an electrolyte are s of horses found at Roman settlements and in the transmitted during electrolysis to either electrode, with the ity, of pile-dwellings indicates that domestic horses view of the recovery of pathogenic bacteria from a pathonally belonged to several distinct types, viz. (1) a logical fluid by such means. During electrolysis of certain characterised by long limbs, by a long face, broad salts in which bacteria were suspended, the organisms convex between the orbits, and strongly deflected on were found to migrate to one electrode ; in some instances cranium, and by the crown of the fourth premolar there was no migration. The effect was noticed to occur Ke from before backwards about 2.5 times the length with killed as well as with living bacteria. By testing ler limbs, a fine, narrow, slightly deflected face, and electrolytes some differences of effect were found, though crown of the fourth premolar about three times the this line of inquiry was not pursued. To utilise this th of its “ pillar "; 3) a type with fairly slender bacterial movement, an electrolyte in which tubercle bacilli $; a long, narrow, somewhat deflected face, and the had shown marked kathodic aggregation was added to in of the fourth premolar about twice the length of tuberculous urine, and the kathode arranged in the form
pillar”; (4) a type characterised by short, "broad of a bacterial trap. After electrolysis tubercle bacilli acarpals, a short face, broad and flat between the entered the trap, which was eventually withdrawn, and the ts; and nearly in a line with the cranium, and by the organisms recognised in a stained film prepared from its yn of the fourth premolar being twice the length of contents. A series of such urines was tested in this way, pillar ”; and (5) a type with short, wide metacarpals
, and in each case tubercle bacilli were found in the trap:
In the final experiment a number of tubercle bacilli th premolar about 1.5 times the length of its " pillar." (estimated at 500) were added to 100 c.c. normal urine, and y the varieties characterised by molars with short their detection attempted by separate investigators by
are dealt with in this communication. The means of the centrifuge and current. By the centrifuge sible ancestors of the short-pillared varieties are Equus none were found, while the current recovered 128 bacilli. lensis of Indian Pliocene deposits
, E. stenonis of the The results of this preliminary investigation may be sumscene deposits of Europe and North Africa, and a new marised as follows :-Certain bacteria under the influence ies, E. gracilis. Arabs, barbs, thoroughbreds, and of a suitable current aggregate at one or other electrode. r. modern breeds with a long
deflected face, broad and The aggregation varies with the nature of the electrolyte, minent between the orbits, and the limbs slender, seem and is probably due to affinity between the products of have mainly sprung from E. sivalensis, while certain electrolysis and the bacteria. It occurs with killed as well mproved breeds with a deflected face, but very short as with living bacteria. The aggregation by electrical illars,''
are probably related to E. stenonis. Exmoor, currents affords a means of collection and examination. pridean, Iceland, and other ponies of the “ Celtic" type, The differences in behaviour of various bacteria are such well as ponies found in the south of France, the West as to suggest the possibility of utilising the method for ies, and Mexico, characterised by a fine narrow skull, purposes of specific discrimination, but in this particular der limbs, and the absence of ergots and hind chest the data hitherto obtained are not sufficient to warrant s, are regarded as the descendants of E. gracilis, which definite statements. The effect of the injection of the intraludes (1) the small species of the English drift described cellular constituents of bacteria (bacterial endotoxins) on Owen as a fossil ass or zebra (A sinus fossilis); (2) the the opsonising action of the serum of healthy rabbits : Dr. all species of French Pliocene and Pleistocene deposits R. Tanner Hewlett. In this investigation the effect of
to palæontologists as E. ligeris, and the small the endotoxins of the Bacillus typhosus, Micrococcus cies of North African Pleistocene deposits known as pyogenes aureus, and B. tuberculosis on the opsonising
asinus atlanticus, and hitherto believed to be closely action of the serum of normal rabbits has been studied. ited to, if not the ancestor of, zebras of the Burchell The endotoxins were prepared by the Macfadyen process,
By crossing experiments evidence has been obtained the rabbits were inoculated subcutaneously, and the specithe wide distribution of horses of the E. gracilis type ; mens for counting the number of bacteria ingested by t broad-browed Arabs and thoroughbreds, with the face leucocytes were prepared in the usual manner.
Human irly in a line with the cranium, are mainly a blend of a leucocytes were employed, and the counts were made on Ithern variety of E.. gracilis (E. caballus libycus) and a fifty cells. (A) Typhoid Endotoxin.--The results for this 'se of the
or Solutré type, and that heavy endotoxin are approximate only, as agglutination and eds have not inherited their coarse limbs from a species bacteriolysis are complicating factors. The amount of sely allied to the wild horse of Mongolia.—The alcoholic endotoxin injected was 0.1 mgrm., prepared from an ment of yeast-juice; part iv., the fermentation of avirulent strain. One day after injection a decided negative cose, mannose, and fructose by yeast-juice : A. Harden phase had developed (opsonic index about 0.2), two days i W. J. Young (1) Mannose behaves towards yeast- after injection the index was rising (1.4), and attained a ce, both in the presence and in the absence of added maximum on the third day (3:3), after which it fell. Diluosphates, substantially in the same manner as glucose. tion of the serum to 1 in 5 and 1 in 10 tended to increase
Fructose resembles both glucose and mannose in its phagocytosis. (B) Staphylococcus Endotoxin.-Endotoxin haviour: but in presence of phosphate is fermented much prepared from an old laboratory strain in a dose of re rapidly than these sugars, and the optimum concen- 0.1 mgrm. produced a rise in the opsonic index to 1.6, tion of phosphate is much higher. (3) Fructose has which persisted for some weeks. Endotoxin (0.1 mgrm.) property of inducing rapid fermentation in presence of prepared from a recently isolated strain produced a rise to ist-juice in solutions of glucose and mannose, containing 2.5. An equivalent dose of staphylococcus vaccine ch an excess of phosphate that fermentation is only pro- (1000 X 10R cocci) produced a rise of the opsonic index to
1-8, which fell subsequently to a point lower than that due to the experimental arrangement, but was a real with either endotoxin.' Estimations of the opsonic indexes | The fact that the B rays from uranium, actinium, made with the recently isolated strain gave results higher are absorbed by matter according to an exponential than those obtained using the old strain. With another shown to be a proof, not of their homogeneity, endotoxin, varying doses (0.1, 0.01, and 0.001 mgrm.) all their heterogeneity. Groups of rays can be built up produced marked rise in the opsonic indexes, the rise corre- represent the properties of these rays with respe sponding with the dose. (c) Tubercle Endotoxin.--Injection absorption. Further experiments were made on the cl of 0-002 mgrm. of endotoxin caused a rise in the opsonic of velocity of the rays after passing through, absce index to 1.9 sixteen days after. A similar dose of German material, and it was found that the velocity of the 1 tuberculin R. produced hardly any effect. A large dose contrary to the view expressed by H. W. Scho... (10 mgrm.) of endotoxin caused a marked negative phase appreciably reduced as they penetrate matter. The al (index 0.5) forty-eight hours after injection, with a sub-absorption of the B particles when measured by the xl sequent rise to 1.8. Endotoxin (10 mgrm.) prepared from tion method involves a considerable number of far tubercle bacilli previously extracted with ether also pro- and, as might be expected, no simple relation cou! duced a negative phase, with a subsequent rise to 1.5. found between the absorption of the rays and their res (D) Keeping Power of Endotoxin Solutions.-Experiments ---Experimental researches on vegetable assimilatios were performed with staphylococcus and tubercle endotoxin respiration ; v., a critical examination of Sachs', . solutions which had been kept for seven weeks after pre- for using increase of dry weight as a measure of 7 paration ; there was little diminution in activity. Other dioxide assimilation in leaves : D. Thoday.—The rep experiments indicate that the solutions deteriorate but little tion and early development of Laminaria digitata for three to six months after preparation. (E) “Negative Laminaria saccharina : G. H. Drew. The process Phase."-Experiments indicate that endotoxin produces reproduction and early development in both L. diz decidedly less " negative phase " than a vaccine.—The and L. saccharina are very similar. The plant occurrence of protandric hermaphroditism in Crepidula gametophyte, and is monæcious. The reproductive a fornicata : J. H. Orton. Crepidula fornicata is occur as dark patches on the lamina, and streptoneurous gastropod belonging to the family Calyp- gametangia embedded among paraphyses. The game træidæ. Individuals of this species associate together contain small spherical gametes, 0.003 mm. in diapermanently in linear series, forming “chains.” The and a number of globules of an oily substance. chains may consist of from two to twelve individuals. The mature, the gametangia rupture at their distal est sex relations of the individuals were noted in about 300 and liberate their contents. The liberated gametes de chains. It was found that the individuals which occur two flagella of different lengths, which are inserted at the attached ends of the chains are always females, together ; they are phototactic, and move in the dire: those occurring near the top of the chains are males, while of the longer flagellum. Cultures from the reprod! those about the middle often possess the secondary sexual areas were made in a culture solution consisting of a characters of both sexes. In intermediate positions in the salts dissolved in sea water. The solution was stop chains occur forms which, in their secondary sexual by heat, and all flasks, pipettes, &c., were sterilischaracters, are intermediate between females and herma- boiling. Division cultures containing the planogan phrodites on the one hand, and between hermaphrodites were made, and eventually cultures free from grom: and males on the other. Thus the chains present a tran- the Ectocarpaceæ and other algæ were obtained. l; sitional series, beginning with the males, which are the cultures, stages of isogamous conjugation, resulting youngest individuals, and ending with the females, which spherical zygospore, were observed. Later a process are the oldest individuals. Microscopical examination of out from the zygospore, and expanded at its end, and i the gonad has shown that there is as complete a tran- the cell contents passed along this process, forme:"1 sitional series in the primary sexual characters as occurs spherical mass at the expanded end. This became c.! in the secondary ones. All the adults are sedentary, but by a cell wall, and the remains of the zygospor the young are able to move about freely. One thousand generated. The cell thus formed developed chrome young ones have been examined, and found to be all males. increased in size, and divided, producing typically a . There is, therefore, no doubt that all the individuals begin of cells each having an outer and an inner cell wal'
. life as males, and change gradually in the course of their stage probably represents the sporophyte (23) gener." life-history into females. It is highly probable, from known Any cell of the chain may then rupture its outer cell descriptions of allied species, and from observation on and by repeated divisions give rise to the laininaria : species of allied genera, that protandric hermaphroditism which emerges from the ruptured exosporium. The ; is common in the Calyptræidæ. Further, it seems probable plant consists of a flattened lamina made up of co! that the family will present a series in the evolution of cells, having at its base a number of colourless unii. protandric hermaphroditism. If such a series be found rhizoids. The stipe is developed from the basal part there is little doubt that a study of the earlier stages would lamina. The disc-shaped expansion develops at the lead to the discovery of the nature of the sexes, i.e. in of the stipe and partially envelops the primary rhiz Mendelian terms, whether the male is heterozygous and the hapteres arise as outgrowths from this disc. the female homozygous, or vice versa. Ten other strepto- germicidal action of metals, and its relation to thneurous hermaphrodites are known. It would seem, there- duction of peroxide of hydrogen : Dr. A. C. Ranka fore, that one of the chief distinctions between the Strepto- Surface flow in calcite : G. T. Beilby.—A preliminart neura and the Euthyneura is beginning to break down.- on Trypanosoma eberthi (Kent)-(Spirochaeta Sensitive micro-balances, and a new method of weighing Lühe), and some other parasitic forms from the ir minute quantitics : B. D. Steele and K. Grant.—The of the fowl : C. H. Martin and Miss Muriel Roberts polarisation of secondary y rays : Dr. R. D. Kleeman.- - The spectrum of magnesium hydride : Prof. A. Fow The absorption of homogeneous B rays by matter, and on | The author has previously discovered that many w the variation of the absorption of the rays with velocity: band lines peculiar to the sun-spot spectrum are idon W. Wilson. The experiments were made with the view of with lines composing the green fluting attribut determining the manner in which the absorption coefficient inagnesium hydride by Liveing and Dewar. The me of the B rays varies with the velocity. Radium, which paper gives the results of a further investigation gives out rays the velocities of which vary between very spectrum with high dispersion, together with deus wide limits, was used as a source of radiation. A beam of wave-length determinations. The principal results rr rays from the radium passed into a magnetic field, by briefly summarised as follows :-1) No sufficient means of which approximately homogeneous rays could be has been found for modifying Liveing and Dewar's brought into an electroscope. The velocities of the rays clusion that the spectrum is produced by the comb:could be determined from the strength of the magnetic of magnesium with hydrogen. (2) Lines are shor field. Screens of metal of different thicknesses were inter- short intervals in all parts of the spectrum from posed in the path of the rays, and it was found that the extreme red to 1 2300, and definite groups of i.. law of absorption was not exponential, but approximately begin at 5621-57, 5211:11, 4844-92, 4371.2, and near :: linear, except for large thicknesses of absorbing material. (3) From photographs of the magnesium arc in het Various experiments were made to show that this was not at low pressures, taken with a 10-feet concave gratis