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(Walter's Patent-Latest Pattern)

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NOW READY, xvi + 432 pages. 8s. 6d, net.


By CHARLES S. MYERS, M.A., M.D., Lecturer in Experimental Psychology in the University of

Cambridge, Professor of Psychology in King's College, University of London. FROM NATURE, JULY 29, 1909 :

“This book supplies a want which has been long felt by both students and teachers. Until now there has been no text-book to meet the special needs of those attending a course of instruction in experimental psychology. There have been books on psychology written on an experimental basis which have disfered little, if at all, from others not so characterised, and there have been handbooks for the laboratory, notably that of Titchener, but there has been no book which attempted to give in reasonable compass a general account of experimental methods and of the results which have been gained by the ex. perimental movement in psychology. Such a book was needed for two classes of persons, for those definitely committed to the study of the subject, and for the large class of people who know that experimental psychology exists but do not know what it means.

“It may be said at once that for each Prof. Myers's book will be of the greatest service. It gives a concise and yet clear account of what has been done by means of experiment in psychology, and it is surprising to find so vast an amount of information in a book of the size. At the same time, there has been admirable judgment in the selection of the material and in the discussion of the many thorny topics in which the science at present abounds." London: EDWARD ARNOLD, 41 & 43 Maddox Street, W.

not of


when the environment of the subject is changed and the possibility of indulgence is restricted, so that the

impulses to satisfy the craving are not aroused, while THE USE AND MISUSE OF DRUGS. those tending to develop control gain ascendancy. The Drugs and the Drug Habit. By Dr. Harrington when the old impulses throng through the well-beaten

difficulty arises on return to the habitual environment, Sainsbury. (New Library of Medicine.) Pp. xv+

(London: Methuen and Co., n.d.) Price paths, and the feeble, newly-acquired, guardian 75. 6d, net.

impulses are not aroused by the surroundings. One THERE is required no little courage on the part like to have seen discussed from the author's stand

form of drug habit which finds no mention we should with this forbidding title, which to the layman brings them all, that of self-drugging with all sorts of memories of the nauseous ransom paid for release from nostrums, which becomes an obsession with many of disabilities, and to the medical man renews the griefs the laity, and is often accompanied by profound of " lectures on materia medica at 8 o'clock on

distrust of the medical profession. a winter's morning " which Darwin found “something fearful to remember.” To those who are not solution suggested is not legislation and restriction so

The drink problem receives some attention, and the repelled by the exterior, however, we can promise much as education in self-control. The shortcomings of much enjoyment from the perusal of this volume, the recent Sale of Poisons Act are subjected to critiwhich is written with the same distinction of literary cism; but should we have a Sale of Poisons Act at all? style and with the same felicity of illustration as

Might we not trust to education here also ? On p. 231 marked the author's “ Principia Therapeutica.” He it is stated that morphia may be detected in the urine writes for the educated layman, and, avoiding the in subjects of the opium habit, which is not in agreetechnical pitfalls with which medicine is so bestrewn, ment with ordinary experience, and the direct inheritgives a clear view of the principles on which treatment

ance of drug habits, as apart from the inheritance of must rest. Commencing with a short historical the mental weakness which underlies these, requires review of the deductive medicine of the “systems,"

further confirmation. among which he places that curious survival homeopathy, he passes quickly to the definition of his subject, noting by the way the etymological con

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS IN ENGLISH. nection between drug and dry, and then discusses the The Thirteen Books of Euclid's Elements. Transgeneral aim of drug-giving and the grounds on which lated from the Text of Heiberg, with Introduction it is based. Here, as throughout, the author draws and Commentary, by T. L. Heath, C.B. many analogies between familiar physical phenomena 3 vols. Vol. i., Introduction and Books i.-ii., pp. and the action of drugs, and attempts to dispel the x+424; Vol. ii., Books iii.-ix., pp. 436; Vol. iii., mysticişm in which therapeutics is still involved to Books x.-siji. and Appendix, pp. 554. (Cambridge : the lay mind.

University Press, 1908.) Price 21. 25. net. The mental effect of treatment as apart from the


UR island is the last home of ignorant Euclidoactual effects of the drug and the psychology of the latry; argal, a German scholar has been allowed placebo are dealt with at some length. Drugs are to edit, and a German firm to publish, the best and thrown into large classes as nutrients, incitants, only critical text of Euclid's works. Our ancient depressants, alteratives, antiseptics, and sedatives, universities maintain compulsory Greek; argal, Dr. which may perhaps find justification in treatises of Heath has thought it necessary to undertake, in addithis kind, but which it is difficult to reconcile with the tion to his commentary, an English translation of the canons of modern pharmacology. The newer methods text. Accepting these facts as part of the eternal of therapeutics, such as organotherapeutics and

as organotherapeutics and fitness of things, those who can beg, borrow, or buy serum therapeutics, are the subjects of an interesting these three handsome volumes will be able to learn chapter, in which they are claimed as the modern the actual contents of the “Elements,” the history developments of ancient theory and in no way dis- of their propagation and influence on mathematical tinct in character from other forms of medication. study, and their relation to Greek science and philoIs not the theory underlying the use of thyroid extract sophy in general. Dr. Heath has been so long a dethe same as that which suggested the administration voted student of Greek geometry that he is able to of pepsin, and is not the newest vaccine a direct give his readers a very good idea of its developments descendant, even in terminology, from that of Jenner? and peculiar limitations; his commentary seems to A third of the book is devoted to the habitual use

cover every point of real interest, and he has rightly or abuse of the narcotic and soporific drugs, such as given, by way of comparison, some account of the opium, alcohol, and chloral, and to the treatment of modern theory of irrationals. the consequent “drug habits.” Here the importance Naturally, the definitions and postulates receive a of re-building the character and self-control of the good deal of attention. The definition of a straight victim is insisted on, and no medicinal treatment is line is translated “a straight line is a line which lies considered of value except in a purely subsidiary and evenly with the points on itself,” and the same renderincidental way. Some support is given to the mental ing of is toov is given in the definition of a plane. treatment of these cases, but its difficulties and draw- Readers of the notes on these definitions will probbacks are recognised. Improvement is often obtained ably agree with the editor that és voov, thus applied, was an obscure phrase even to a Greek, and that it

HYPNOTISM AND OCCULTISM. was meant to refer to what we may call the indifferent distribution of points and lines on a line and a plane

Hynotism, including a Study of the Chief Points of respectively. At any rate, Proclus's explanation is

Psycho-therapeutics and Occultism. By Dr. Albert clearly wrong, though it very likely contains the sub

Moll. Translated from the fourth enlarged edition

by A. F. Hopkirk. stance of what a teacher would often say in com

Pp. xvi+610. (London and menting on Euclid's text.

Felling-on-Tyne : The Walter Scott Publishing Co.,

1909.) Price 6s. Another very interesting note is that on the Greek notion of angle." As this included curvilinear THIS

THIS book is a translation from the fourth edition angles, it led to a variety of discussions and some of the original work. The author presents his paradoxes; for example, taking a semicircle AMB readers with a survey of all that is most important and a tangent BT at one end of the diameter AB, it in the whole province of hypnotism, and indeed has was argued that the angle at B between the circle left little unsaid which could be of any value. An and diameter is less than the rectilineal angle ABT, opening chapter on the history of hypnotism indicates because BT is outside the circle, while, on the other the gradual progress of the science from the stage hand, any acute rectilineal angle can be proved less in which it was almost hopelessly mixed up with than the curvilinear angle in question. However superstitious quackery, through periods of utter (p. 176, bottom), there is some evidence of a way of neglect on the part of the scientific world, to the era, looking at angles such as we should now express in which is even now only dawning, in which the subterms of the differential calculus.

ject is submitted to the strictest critical examination To the famous postulate 5 (generally referred to as

of physiologists and psychologists. The literature the vith axiom) eighteen pages are devoted. Here that has grown up round the subject is enormous, it must suffice to say that sufficient references are

and its volume almost daily increases. given to the principal authorities on the theory of

Dr. Moll's work is not one which is likely to appeal parallels and non-Euclidean geometry, and that atten- to the general reader, and, indeed, we are of opinion tion is properly directed to the work of the Jesuit

that this is one of its greatest merits. In this country Saccheri.

hypnotism has too long been a subject in which a The books least familiar to students are, of course, certain class of mind has taken an interest alternathe arithmetical books (vii.-ix.) and Book x. With tively to spiritualism, “Christian Science,” or other regard to the former, Dr. Heath has given diagrams occult system of the day. To such, a carefully attenconsisting of straight lines, just like those in Book v.; tive and balanced criticism is positively repellent, and this is rather misleading, and it would surely have it is, unfortunately, in this class that hypnotism has been better to give rows of dots, or, at any rate,

hitherto had its vogue. Dr. Moll deals in very congraduated straight lines to the same scale. In this siderable detail with the symptoms of hypnosis. Inpart of the work, Dr. Heath gives algebraical para- deed, by far the longest chapter of his book is devoted phrases of the less obvious propositions; these will be to a minute account of the psychological, physiological found very helpful to those not familiar with Greek and even anatomical changes which may be noted methods of reasoning.

during, or a result of, hypnosis. The various As De Morgan said long ago, the most remarkable explanations which have from time to time been put (and in some ways most characteristically Greek) book forward as to the hypnotic state are subjected to of the “ Elements” is the tenth. If we turn its searching analysis, and the confident assertions of propositions into algebra, we find that they contain many of them are shown to have no foundation. an exhaustive classification of a certain set of irra- What we know about mental processes is confined tionals (or irrational ratios), all, of course, construc

to a few concomitant phenomena, while the real tible from a given line by means of rule and compass.

nature of such processes appears for ever debarred Dr. Heath, in his introductory note, gives the irra. us, and to our author the endeavours of some investionals in question in an algebraic form, which is tigators to explain mental processes by means of our perhaps the best suited for comparison with the pro- present knowledge of the central nervous system indipositions, but hardly so neat as De Morgan's in his cate a disquieting tendency to overestimate the gifts article (“ Penny Cyclopædia ') on " Irrational Quanti- of physiology. It is, at any rate, plain that authorities ties,” which is still worth careful reading.

take up diametrically opposite sides in their hypoIt should be mentioned that there is an appendix theses as to the nature of the hypnotic phenomena. containing the spurious Book xiv. (by Hypsicles), and

The medical and legal aspects of hypnotism are a note on the so-called Book xv., two elaborate in dealt with at much length, and an important condexes, and a beautiful facsimile of a page of the clusion that emerges from the consideration of hypBodleian MS. D'Orville 301.

notism from these points of view is that its practice Those who are really interested in Greek geometry should be confined to those who are properly trained will be deeply grateful to Dr. Heath for putting to- in the diagnosis of the affections which it is sought to gether, in such an attractive form, such a large treat. To hypnotise those who should not be amount of historical information, and thus saving hypnotised, and to seek to cure disease which is not students from an immense amount of toilsome re- amenable to such treatment, is to bring hypsearch. Finally, the excellence of the diagrams, espe- notism into disrepute and to wrong the sufferer. cially in Book xiii., should not be overlooked.

Dr. Moll winds up his work with a chapter

G. B. M. upon occultism, not because there is any in



firm's ap

ternal affinity between hypnotism and occultism, but characteristics; interpoles; the Thury system as because the two subjects are often mentioned together, applied to the Moutiers-Lyon installation; relay for a connection determined by their historic develop- field regulation; mechanical analogy of alternating ment. We wish that all enthusiastic investigators of currents; a number of obsolete alternators; some the occult could be induced to peruse this part of the modern alternators; form factor; oscillograms; vector book. With a candid admission of the depth of our diagrams; currents in branch circuits; resonance; ignorance, our author asserts that we have no right stationary waves in the antenna of a wireless station; flatly to refuse to recognise any domain of research. the Slaby-Acro-Braun system of wireless; DobroYet if the conditions of research into the phenomena volsky's balancing transformer for three-wire system; of occultism be severe, and if none of the assertions electric bells; Rhumkorff interrupter; Wehnelt of occultists be accepted without proof, there is, interrupter; selenium cell; buzzer; maximum cutaccording to Dr. Moll, no single series of experiments out; high-frequency arc; wireless telephony; power that carries with it a convincing proof of the reality of electric currents. of occultistic phenomena. We can warmly recom

The fifth chapter deals with the application of mend this work to our readers as a thorough exposi-electricity, and here we get also a great variety, such tion of an abstruse subject.

as Geissler tubes, lifting magnets, bells, telephones, transformers, motors, the Kjellin furnace, a cata

logue picture of a chain-welding machine, glow ELECTRO-TECHNICS.

lamps, arc lamps, secondary batteries, a load diagram Einführung in die Elektrotechnik. By Dr. C. of a central station, switchboard diagrams for D.C. Heinke. Pp.

Pp. xviii + 301. (Leipzig : S. Hirzel, and A.C. stations. The final chapters deal with 1909.) Price 13 marks.

measuring instruments, cables and overhead lines, AT

T a first glance this seems a very interesting switches, and accessory apparatus. The grouping of

book, but a closer study of its pages produces all these different matters as adopted by the author a feeling of mental fatigue, not to say impatience; may be logically right, but it is not convenient for and this is probably due to the fact that many obvious the reader; it is also irritating to find a page or so points are set out at great length whilst really of elementary mathematical treatment interleaved important or difficult matters are passed over with between catalogue pictures of tantalising brevity. Thus the author gives us many paratus, whilst the important features of the thing pages on the calculation of the current in a circuit illustrated are hardly mentioned. The book has containing inductance and resistance, or capacity and interesting parts, but to find them the reader must resistance, but the subject of single-phase commutator know a good deal of the subject; and even then the motors is dismissed in exactly two and one-third search will be rather troublesome, as there is no pages.


Gisbert KAPP. After a long-winded introduction, in which the author develops his ideas as to what should be taught at a technical high school and what constitutes the

OUR BOOK SHELF. real difference between the mere technical man and (1) Leitfaden der Tierkunde für höhere Lehranthe scientific engineer, we find a chapter which a stalten. By Dr. K. Smalian. IV. and V. Teilen. less pedantic writer would have simply headed (Leipzig : G. Freytag, 1909.) Price 1.80 marks mechanical analogies,” but which bears the title


(2) Naturwissenschaftliches Unterrichtswerk Conceptions of a Mechanical Nature to facilitate


höhere Mädchenschulen. By Dr. K. Smalian and the Mental Connection between all Basic Electro

K. Bernan. I. Teil. Pp. 50; illustrated. (Leipzig : magnetic Phenomena.” The fifty-odd pages in which G. Freytag, 1909.) Price 1.20 marks. the author develops his analogies are very interest-|(1) With the two parts referred to under the title ing, but they can only be read with advantage by of the work first quoted, Dr. Smalian brings to a persons who are already well acquainted with the conclusion his “ Leitfaden," of which the earlier parts subject. A beginner will find the analogy more

have been already noticed in NATURE. The fourth difficult to understand than the electrical phenomenon part, which is devoted to the Arthropoda, is stated itself.

to be for lower third form teaching (Lehrstoff der

other invertebrates, is intended ducers ” (German Spannungserzeuger), and in this struction (Lehrstoff der Obertertia). Whether the parts we find the old-fashioned frictional machine (but not intended for the higher forms are considered to comthe Wimshurst), Armstrong's experiment, primary prise more difficult zoology than those for the lower batteries, thermopiles, and the dynamic generation grades is not very easy to decide. As regards style of E.M.F. discussed. The latter leads to the follow

of treatment, the two parts before us seem to follow ing chapter, on “The Technical Production of Elec- very much the lines of their predecessors, and contain

a vast store of information, conveyed in a very contrical Energy." This occupies some 200 pages, and densed and concise manner, this technicality of the contains a most bewildering collection of all possible text being in some degree relieved by the coloured things either directly or very remotely connected with plates, the subjects of which are well selected, and dynamos. A few titles of the matters treated will illustrate the life-history of a number of species. suffice to show how varied is the character of the in accordance with the requirements of a new scheme

(2) This text-book has been written by the authors subjects collected under this head :-mechanical de- of instruction authorised for higher grade girls' tails of armature; commutator and field system; schools in Prussia, and in order to conform exactly

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