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The number for last week (Sept. 30) contained :-
Appreciations of Carl von Linné. By B. D. J.
India-Rubber Manufaoture, By C. S.
Yeotor Analysis.
Retaining Walls and Road Bridges. By T. H. B.
Our Book Shell.
Letters to the Editor :-

Visibility of Halley's Comet. W. F. DENNING.—The
Presence of Hæmoglobin in Invertebrate Blood.

GEOFFREY SMITH.
Magnetio Storm of September 25.
Aviation, (Illustrated.) By Prof. G. H. BRYAN, F.R.S.
The Royal Observatory and Electric Tram-

WAYS
Peter Barr.
Notes.
Our Astronomical Column.
The Institute of Metals. By A. McWilLIAM.
The British Association at Winnipeg

Section K.-Botany.-Opening Address by Lieut,

Colonel DAVID PRAIN, C.I.E., LL.D., F.R.S.,

President of the Section.
Sub-section of K. – Agrioulture. — Opening

Address by Major P. G. CRAIGIE, C.B., F.S.S.,

Chairman of the Sub-section. (With Diagrams.) University and Educational Intelligence. Societies and Academies.

Copies can be obtained through any bookseller or news. agent, or post-free from the Publishers, St. Martin's Street, London, W.C., on receipt of 6 d. from residents in the British Isles, or of 7d. from residents abroad.

QUOTATIONS FROM :"AL LL books of physics agree as to the length of these waves. Indeed

the whole iheory depends upon them. And, to produce Sound, by the theory, they must enter the ear, every ear, without disarrangement; an absolute impossibility.

“ But all will agree that if it was possible for them to form, there must be room for them to form in. That is, there must be at least 70 feet of space for the longest one. between the sounding body and the ear, the others proportionally. But, as every one can learn by experiment, there isn't a sound thus represented but can be heard perfectly, uttered close to the ear, with less than three inches between it and the auditory nerve. This fact alone shows the utter absurdity of the whole theory.

"That anything in the shape of waves 70 feet long, or one foot long, or of any length, could circulate in air, in all directions, and in all limes, or in fact at any time, the radius of a sphere, thus entering ten thousand different ears, more or less, without in the slighiest changing their form is an inconceivable absurdity.

*

Price 3s. net.

"Rev. James Challis for many years Professor of Astronomy at Oxford University, England, says :

"The possibility of hearing distinctly words spoken at a distance, depends on the faithfulness with which the air transmits the im. pressions made on it by the organ of voice. As the difference between the sound of one letter and that of another corresponds to a difference in the form of the curve representing the succession and magnitude of the condensations impressed, it is necessary that the form should remain unchanged by aistance of transmi-sion in order that words heard at different distances may be the sounds.

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“The correlative without of vision is the thing seen ; and the sligheest de ect in this will appear in the vision. Thus in an elm tree, if a single branch or leaf is gone or the smallest part of a leaf, the vision, that is, the picture in the eye, will be defective to the same extent. That a similarly exact correlative exists without, of Sound, there can be no possible question."

London : E. & F. N. SPON, 57 Haymarket.

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ARTHUR F. BIRD, 22 BEDFORD STREET, STRAND, LONDON.

Agency for American Books. or American Publishing Company, Middlebury,

Vt., U.S.A.

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The University” Lantern, with Russian Iron body, sliding baseboard,

two superior objectives, condensers 41" diam., plane silvered mirror "A," which is moved by a knob causing the rays to be reflected upwards for the projection of objects in a horizontal plane, prism with silvered face which can be used at "C" or as an erecting prism in mount "D," lime-light burner, slide carrier. Price complete in travelling case, without adjustable table...

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STANDARD INSTRUMENTS OF ALL KINDS Fortin's Barometers – Maximum Thermometers-Minimum Thermometers - Hygrometers-Earth Thermometers-Sunshine Recorders-Rain Gauges-Self-registering Rain GaugesSelf-recording Rain Gauges, Barometers, Thermometers

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THURSDAY, OCTOBER 7, 1909. curately, and in a manner likely to foster personal

observation of those species within the reader's reach.

After an introductory chapter dealing with definiTWO BIRD BOOKS.

tions, and such questions as pterylosis and feather (1) Birds of the World: a Popular Account. By structure, nests and eggs, we are presented with

Dr. Frank H. Knowlton. With a chapter on clearly, concisely written chapters on the anatomy of the Anatomy of Birds, by Frederic A. Lucas; birds, their geographical distribution, migration and The whole edited by Robert Ridgway. Pp. xiii +873. classification. The various subclasses and orders of (New York : Henry Holt and Company; London: birds are then dealt with in twenty-one further chap

Constable and Co., Ltd., 1909.) Price 3os. net. ters. Dr. Knowlton recognises two subclasses—Archæ(2) Birds Useful and Birds Harmful. By Otto Her-ornithes, with unique representation in the Archæ

man and J. A. Owen. Pp. viii+387. (Manchester : opteryx, and Neornithes, containing all other birds, The University Press, 1909.) Price 6s. net.

which he divides into twenty-one orders. Had space (1) TT would seem that there is no satisfying the permitted, we should feel tempted to demur at the IT

demand for books on birds. Every year places position assigned in the avian “ tree” to the Hesperbefore, not the scientific ornithologist only, but the ornithiformes and Ichthyornithiformes, and to the general reader, in this country, scores of volumes on

Palamedeæ and Opisthocomi. Taking the author's this group of animals, which must indicate a ready brigading as it stands, we find each of the orders sale for them. The taste for natural-history works discussed in a very interesting manner. The habits has unquestionably been growing in England at a and life-history of all the more important species in rapid rate during the last decade among all classes of each are described concisely, as space demanded much the community, instigated and encouraged largely by condensation ; yet nothing essential or really important the non-technical manner in which so many treatises is omitted to enable the reader to obtain an excellent of the highest scientific authority are being published grasp of each group. The illustrations are very numerfor the general reader, the majority of them lavishly ous, and, with a few exceptions, excellent.

There are illustrated, as well as by the issue of so many local 233 black-and-white blocks, many of them full-page; of faunas, which give an impulse to the study of the the latter, some of the best are reproductions of those species to be found in their own neighbourhood by beautiful life-like groups with scenic backgrounds those into whose hands the books fall.

which form one of the most attractive features of the Imitation is the sincerest flattery, we know. The American Museum in New York. The representation “ Birds of the World,” the first of the two volumes of the young hoatzins is specially instructive. Where on our list, is one of the American Nature series, pro- the blocks, however, have been made from coloured jected by Holt and Company, of New York, to which plates in such works as Schlegel's “ Diergaarden the leading scientific men of America are to contri- the Zoological Society of London's publications, the bute. This volume, however, compares disadvan- results have proved less satisfactory, inasmuch as the tageously in one respect with those of the English yellows and reds of the originals have come out too Nature series, in handiness and comfort in reading dark. The smaller text-figures also leave something to or consulting. It is an octavo measuring 10} inches be desired, occasionally, in the clear definition of long by 7} inches wide, and nearly 3 inches thick. markings on the plumage. Of the sixteen full-page It contains 873 thick pages, and turns the balance at plates reproduced in the three-colour process, with more than 41b.; it might be termed a bi-manual, or which the volume is further embellished, specially noteperhaps more appropriately a table-edition. In respect worthy are those of the mandarin-duck, the racketto its contents, the book stands on a high pedestal of tailed kingfisher, and the lesser bird of paradise. The excellence.

figure of the kiwi on p. 29 is taken, we presume, from The demand for books on birds seems to be develop- a drawing of the type which was mounted for Lord ing in America as rapidly as it is doing in England, Stanley's collection at Knowsley, before the correct for the Nature series of the United States is due, as attitude and habits of the apteryx were sufficiently the preface assures us,

known either to scientific men to taxidermists. " to the great awakening of popular interest ... in Buller's “ Birds of New Zealand” would have suprecent years in relation to our birds, an interest that plied a better model. has been fostered not only by the admirable work The information contained in the “ Birds of the of the Audubon societies and the widespread nature World” is, as already remarked, nearly everywhere teaching in the schools, but by the deeper, broader sentiment which is leading back to, and nearer to,

up to date, and very accurate; but the omission of any nature. The increasing number of people yearly turn

reference to the Phororachidæ is surprising. In regard ing back to the country, either for recreation or per

to the moa, the bird is described as being absolutely manent residence, has naturally stimulated a desire wingless. Evidence, however, was obtained from a to know more intimately their surroundings—the turbary deposit near Omaru proving that certainly one trees, the flowers, the birds."

species of Dinornis possessed a humerus that funcThe three names which appear, as authors or editor, tioned in its glenoid cavity on the scapulo-coracoid ; 02 the title-page are a sufficient guarantee that the and, if the writer be not mistaken, a small bone is in desire of the migrant to the country to know more, not existence in New Zealand very similar in form to that only about the birds of the United States, but of those described as belonging to the humerus of Epyornis. of the globe generally, will be gratified amply, ac- The moa had probably, therefore, a diminutive wing like

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that of the kiwi. With regard to the question whether From a .carefulreading of the work we can really the Maoris ever saw the moa, it is stated on p. 81 that discover very little not to be found in nearly every appears that the Maoris have only been in

book on British birds. It includes also a few species, their present location for about ten generations, or

common in Hungary, which rarely visit England, or some 250. or. 300 years, and the moa could hardly are only winter visitors which can trouble the English have lived within that period, and it is held as prob- agriculturist but little. It lacks, moreover, the details able that their extinction was several centuries earlier than this.''

arranged on a regular scientific basis ” and “the

investigations with regard to the food of birds carried Definite evidence of the contemporaneity of the

on by a fully qualified entomologist Maori and the moa was adduced some eighteen years

Herr Herman has proved the various species of ago, during the exploration of the Sumner Cave, near Hungary to be useful or harmful, and which would Christchurch.

The mouth of this rock-shelter had have impressed the corresponding classes of readers been closed by a landslide before the arrival of the in England as those for whom the volume was preEuropeans in the South Island, the result, probably, of pared in Hungary. A more thorough work on the an earthquake, while a meal was in progress. The economic value of birds in the English language is to occupants succeeded in escaping, but round the fire- / be found in the Bulletins of the U.S. Department of place about which they had been sitting were found Agriculture, which contain the life-history and the moa bones and portions of the eggs, with the shell- detailed results of the examination of hundreds of rmembrane intact, on which they had been feasting. On individuals of each species, including nearly as many the floor near by lay a boat-bailer and other objects English ones as are given in the volume under review. with the carving truly characteristic of the Maori " Birds Useful and Harmful ” may, nevertheless, upon them.

assist in spreading the knowledge of those birds, perOf the three specimens of the now extinct Dromaeus sistently persecuted, that deserve protection. F. ater discovered, and brought to Europe by the French expedition under Baudin, all have now been located, as stated in the work before us-two in Paris (a

A GROUP OF "FLORAS." skeleton and mounted specimen), and one (a skeleton) (1) A Tourist's Flora of the West of Ireland. By in Florence. A fourth specimen, it might have been R. L. Praeger. Pp. xii+243; with 5 coloured mentioned, is now in the Lord Derby Museum, Liver- maps, 27 plates, and 17 figures. (Dublin : Hodges, pool, and was exhibited at the International Ornitho- Figgis and Co., Ltd., 1909.) Price 3s. 6d. net. logical Congress in London by the Hon. Walter (2) Illustrated Guide to the Trees and Flowers of Eng. Rothschild on behalf of the director of that institu- land and Wales. By H. G. Jameson. Pp. xi+ 136. tion. As to the black swan of Australia, it seems (London : Simpkin, Marshall and Co., Ltd., 1909.) extremely probable that it was indigenous to New

Price 2s. 6d. net. Zealand as well as to the island-continent. The bones (3) Flora Koreana. Pars Prima. By T. Makai. of a species, described under the name of Chenopis (Journal of the College of Science, Imperial Universumnerensis, hardly differing from those of Chenopis sity of Tokyo, Japan, vol. xxvi., article i., 1909.) atrata, were found among the debris of the disturbed (4) The Botany of Worcestershire. An Account of the meal referred to above in the Sumner Cave, as well as Flowering Plants, Ferns, Mosses, Hepatics, Lichens, in an ancient kitchen-midden in the Chatham islands.

Fungi, and Fresh-water Algae, which grow or have A very full' index completes this very excellent,

grown spontaneously in the County of Worcester. succinct, and trustworthy account of the “ Birds of

By J. Amphlett and Carleton Rea. Pp. xxxiii +654. the World," and we hope it will, despite is bulkiness

(Birmingham: Cornish Bros., Ltd., 1909.) Price and weight, meet in the United States, and in England also, with the appreciation it fully deserves. (1) MR. R. L. PRAEGER'S book is a solid con

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tribution to the subject of phytogeography, a very different character, and the reason for its pub- and is increased in value by the many beaulication in this country is not very apparent.

tiful, mostly full-page, photographs of striking The book is a translation of portions of the valuable species of plants,

of which appear for work prepared by the director of the Royal Hungarian the first

time,

here illustrated. Coloured Ornithological Bureau to enable landowners, farmers, and uncoloured maps of the districts described or fruit-growers, and gardeners in that country to dis- of the distribution of species add to the usefulness of criminate their avian friends and foes, together with the book, which is well indexed and singularly free a somewhat well-worn account, padded with poetical from typographical errors. The introduction contains quotations, by Mr. J. A. Owen, of a selection of our a short account of the physical features of the west most common English birds, including always the of Ireland, of its, mainly edaphic, plant formations, statement whether the species is harmful or useful and of the more remarkable features of its flora. The in England, which seems to be apparently the only topographical section which follows contains valuable. excuse for Herr Herman's book (in part) appearing information on the chasacter of the flora of the in an English garb. The English co-author believes numerous regions selected for description. This sec., that amongst the innumerable books on bird-life which tion will appeal to the touring botanist, more especially have been published of late years “ there has as the information given is not purely botanical. The , been a lack which this little volume inay supply.” author might have expanded this section, with advan. ,

258. net.

some

as

are

even

our

nane

tage to the inquiring tourist to whom the west is given. New species and varieties are described in unknown.

Latin, and usually illustrated. The index is inadeThe Systematic section forms half the book, and quate. It is necessary to search the body of the follow's mainly the classification and nomenclature of work for the novelties, and there is no general index the London catalogue. Pilularia globulifera is wrongly to the contents of the plates. It is impossible to displaced in the Selaginellaceæ. The distribution of each cuss the contents of the volume in detail. One illusspecies is recorded, and in many cases it is due to the tration must suffice for comparison with our fora. work of the author that the distribution is now known The beautiful genus Acer is represented by fifteen to be so extensive. First records are duly credited to the species or varieties. Trifolium by one species only. discoverers, and many interesting observations are (4) This work deals in a comprehensive manner with embodied in the text. The Saxifrages and the heaths, the flowering and flowerless plants of the county of e.g., are adequately treated. The book can be well Worcester. In an introduction of twenty pages justice recommended for the sake of its illustrations, and is done to earlier publications, Lees and Mathews being would be worth purchase if it had none. It does specially noted. The authors follow the London Catajustice to the delightful botanical and other attractive logue in the names of the species, adding useful features of the west, and is a credit to author and synonyms. First records

duly credited, and publisher.

valuable specific distinctions are occasionally added. (2) The avowed object of the writer of this book is to Some of the notes, now and then amusing, are often enable readers, knowing little of botany, by its use to loosely worded, and might sometimes have been give names to the plants they find, the name being, the omitted with advantage. The mosses and liverworts writer insists, the first essential. This idea is not at are listed by J. E. Bagnall, and the fungi by C. Rea, all in keeping with recent views on nature-study. both authorities on their groups. It is a little disStill, every student of botany should learn to name a concerting to find Protonema muscicola, Ag., recorded plant by the help of a “flora." Teachers know as a fresh-water alga (crowding about the bases of how students,

with the keys in best moss-stems)! Throughout the book derivatives of the floras, fail from time to time to a plant. Latin names are given. A map showing the botanical In the book under review all flowering plants are areas of the county is an excellent feature. The book divided into ten sections. One section-flowers in is a distinct advance on previous publications on Worheads or umbels—includes the Papilionaceæ. In cestershire botany, and should stimulate interest in another section-flower parts in threes or sixes, field botany in the county. The price is high for a Rumex occurs between Triglochin and Luzula. The county flora, but local patriotism will probably rise to section devoted to aquatic plants will prove useful. the occasion.

T. J. Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons are not differentiated. Ruscus is said to have “phyllodes " as leaves. This is one of the few cases in which botanical terms

GEOLOGY OF NEW YORK CITY. are introduced.

Geology of the City of New York. By L. P. The second part of the book is devoted to a selected Gratacap. Pp. x+232; with 65 figures and 4 number of natural orders, and more especially to the maps. Third edition, enlarged. (New York : means of identification of the species of different Henry Holt and Co., 1909.) genera, arranged alphabetically. This is the most use- "HIS general treatise on the underlying structure ful part of the book. The illustrations, though small, of the city of New York and its immediate sur. are generally good. Misprints are few. There is, roundings appears to be the amplification of a shorter however, no index. The book is cheap, and will prove work on the same subject, printed privately for the serviceable to the reader who already knows his natural author. Its outlook is local, and, as the interpolated orders fairly well.

“ Class Directions " indicate, it is intended primarily (3) Mr. Makai's work is indicative of the line for use in the instruction of the inhabitants of followed by Japan on the absorption of a the great city. It is compiled from various sources, province into its empire. Korea was quite recently which are duly acknowledged, and contains, besides, ·annexed, and so early as 1906 Makai began his study some original observations, but these are not suffiof its flora. The systematist of Japan is to-day doing ciently important or numerous to appeal to the wider as the British systematists did at the time England circle of geologists who have no particular interest first acquired and explored her colonies.

in the locality. In many passages it emphasises the This first part of the “ Flora Koreana ” deals with transformation wrought by man on the original the Polypetalæ and certain Gamnopetalæ, and is well aspect of the country, in deference, no doubt, to the illustrated by fifteen plates (one or two of which ara naïve astonishment with which the average townrather crowded) of plants mostly new to science. dweller receives such information. Though printer's errors are numerous and generally New York is one of the few great cities founded indicated in a list of errata, the volume is produced upon crystalline schists. Some of the problems of in a form in keeping with the high standard of the the schists and their entangled igneous intrusions are other publications of the College of Science of Tokyo. touched upon by the author, but his grasp is hardly The keys to the genera, and, under each genus, to its adequate for their unravelling. As in almost every species, are useful. Under each species its biblio- similar region, diverse views are held respecting the graphy, habitat, distribution, and Japanese name are age of the different members of the schistose series.

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