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which have to be solved before we can approach in chester, and the like-to equip men educationally with English education to what I venture to call the ideal of those moral, physical, and intellectual qualities which are Imperial responsibility.

most in requisition in our great dependencies and commosIn criticising, the old mediæval system of education wealths. which prevailed in England until comparatively recent Such institutions, from their newness, their eagerness, years, and which still has far too great a hold on the their freedom from antiquated prejudices and vestsd more venerable and important institutions of ur island interests, are more likely to be counted upon for many home, I would not have you suppose that I am an advocate years to come to send forth a stream of young men who of a complete, or even approximately complete, basis of have learned in the school of hardness to face the dificul. utilitarian education. It is an easy charge for those who ties and to adapt themselves to the austere conditions desire stare super antiquas vias to throw in one's teeth. which are inseparable from life in unworked regions and I have little hesitation in expressing my belief that the half-discovered continents. And it is at once a hopetul time has come (and I speak as one whose training was and inspiring thought that the great Dominion of Canada that of a classical scholar, for I was brought up in the will welcome such to herself as sufficient and efficient straitest sect of academical Pharisees)-I say I have no citizens of her all but boundless territories, that she wll hesitation in expressing my belief that the time has come, recognise in them “bone of her bone and flesh of her not only that the study of the two ancient languages Aesh, physically, mentally, and morally capable, in comshould be reduced

for all except scholastic pany with those of her own sons who have long settled specialists, but also that both should yield pride of place in the land, of extending the borders of the Empire by in our educational system to the claims of English, modern erlarging its resources, and of lifting, securing, and conlanguages, mathematics, natural science, and, not least, solidating thereby the destinies of the Anglo-Saxon manual training, so that our young men should be fitly equipped to put their hand to any work which may con

There is still one more educational factor on which I front them amid all the complex problems and critical

would ask attention before I close this address. It is situations to be found within the world-wide boundaries this—the necessity of a closer touch educationally in the of the British Empire.

sense of “ academically'') between the secondary schools Germany, France, and the United States have been and colleges of the Mother Country and similar institubeforehand with us in the working out of such a reformed tions in the great Dominion and commonwealths which system of education. I am by no means one of those own her parentage. How this can be effected without who believe that we should be wise in copying the methods great modification of our existing English system it is in their entirety of any of these three peoples in their

hard to see. But one point is quite clear. We must give educational methods. Undoubtedly in all three there has up that part of our system which insists on choking the been a

more organised connection between the actual passage of the student from point to point in his educateaching given in their respective schools and the indus- to the privileges of further education, if such examination trial, social, and political needs of the respective peoples. entrance and throughout his academical course. It But no one nation is exactly like another nation in its would be of incalculable advantage to the Empire at large temper and genius, and I should be sorry to advocate, if an extension of educational intercommunion, such as for instance, the highly organised system of State educa- was inaugurated by the noble benefactions of the late tion in Germany, under which it could be predicted to a

Cecil Rhodes, could be secured throughout the Empire. certainty that boys and girls in every secondary or primary Undoubtedly examination would be the surest test for school on any given Friday morning should be studying determining the question of the admission of a student (say) the geographical importance of Natal or the out- to the privileges of further education if such examination lines of the coast of Lincolnshire. There must be many could be conducted within a limited geographical area. educational differences, because the idiosyncrasies of each But it is quite an impossible system if adopted as between nation differ from those of another, and I do not think the outlying parts of a great empire. The United States we need ever fear that our intrinsic individuality will be of America have taught us a better way. For instance, crushed into any Teutonic cast-iron mould or ground in the State of Minnesota, the university has legislated down beneath the heel of some bureaucratic educational that if and when the principal of a high school of recogdespotism. But that we ought to change our ways still nised position certifies that a student has successfully more than we have, and adopt saner educational models, pursued for a specified length of time those studies in many searchings of heart through a long educational that high school that would entitle him to admission to career have gradually, but overwhelmingly, convinced me. the university, he should be admitted thereto without If we are apt to think, speak, and act Imperially, our further delay or hindrance. What a paralysing curse the education must take form from a strong Imperial senti- Charybdis of examination has been to all true learning ment, and must aim at instilling Imperial instincts in the only those who have suffered from it for thirty years car young lives which that education is meant to control and bear adequate testimony. It would be one of the most develop.

fertilising sources from which to secure good and proI have spoken hitherto of this subject mainly from the gressive citizens if, instead of admitting within her borders point of view of secondary education, with which I am all or any who came of their own spontaneity or fron the most conversant; not only for that reason, however, compulsion (leaving their country, perchance, for their but because most of those who are destined to proceed country's good), the Government authorities in the to the distant outlying parts of the British Empire, and,

Dominion could get into closer touch with the educational when there, to take prominent parts in the development authorities of the Mother Country, who would act as of that Empire, obtain their educational equipment from guarantee that the material sent out by the Mother the secondary schools of England. It is, therefore, on

Country should be of an approved and first-rate quality. curricula offered or desiderated in them that I have ex- This might be worked on the American " accredited clusively dwelt. But I do not blink the fact that the


system, under which the authorities of the school proper educational organisation of our elementary schools sending the pupil should feel the maximum of responsion the one hand, and of our universities on the other, bility in recommending his admission to the academical, exercises a large influence on the solution of Imperial or the technical, or the industrial organisations existing problems.

in the Dominion. On elementary education, however, I do not propose to Since penning the first sentences of the above paratouch in this address, mainly because I look forward to graph last June my eye has been caught by a notice experts in primary schools directing the thoughts of this which appeared in the columns of the Times on the 28th association more directly to them. But I will touch with day of that month while I was engaged in the very act great brevity on the subject of university education.

of correcting the proofs of this address; but I prefer to Whether Oxford and Cambridge—particularly Oxford, leave the paragraph written as it stands, as the notice 11 will ever so reform themselves as to contribute largely to question is an eloquent commentary on my suggestion of such solution remains to be seen. Personally, I look with educational intercommunion. far greater confidence to the more recently organised I may, perhaps, be allowed to read the extract from universities—those of London, Leeds, Sheffield, Man- the Times verbatim, though it may be familiar to some

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at least among my audience. It is headed International English-speaking Universities for the use of students, Interchange of Students—a New Movement.”

undergraduates, and others. They will also provide in“We have received, says the Times, the following formation relating to educational tours of any description interesting particulars of a new educational movement to in English-speaking countries, and the arrangement of provide for the interchange of University students among tours suitable to the needs of the inquirer with a view the English-speaking peoples.

to his obtaining the greatest facilities for education with “ The object is to provide opportunities for as many a minimum of expense. Furthermore it will be their duty as possible of the educated youth of the United Kingdom, to provide information as to the best places for the study Canada, and the United States (who, it is reasonable to of educational, governmental, industrial, and social suppose, will become leaders in thought, action, civic and problems in the United States, Canada, the United Kingnational government in the future) to obtain some real dom, and other parts of the Empire, as well as to provide insight into the life, customs, and progress of other introductions to leaders in the above-named spheres of nations at a time when their own opinions are forming, activity, besides undertaking the organisation and conduct with a minimum of inconvenience to their academic work of special tours for educational purposes, if necessary. and the least possible expense, with a view to broadening “ It is proposed to provide 28 travelling, scholarships, their conceptions and rendering them of greater economic 14 of these being available for Universities in the United and social value, such knowledge being, it is believed, Kingdom, 10 for Universities in America, and four for essential for effectual leadership.

Universities in Canada. The arrangements will be con

trolled by general committees, one for the United Kingdom The additional objects of the movement are to increase

and one for Canada and the United States, unless it is the value and efficiency of, as well as to extend, present

found necessary to inaugurate a separate committee for University training by the provision of certain Travelling

each of the latter." Scholarships for practical observation in other countries under suitable guidance. These scholarships will enable You will observe, then, that a scheme which I had those students to benefit who might otherwise be unable ventured to suggest as being “ of incalculable advantage to do so through financial restrictions. It also enables to the Empire had, before I wrote the words quoted, the administration to exercise greater power of direction been advocated entirely without my knowledge by a body in the form the travel is to take. In addition to academic of influential educational leaders in England, whose names qualifications, the selected candidate should be what is were appended to the notice which I have read; and I popularly known as an ‘all-round' man; the selection need only add that it is quite certain that I am interpret. to be along the lines of the Rhodes Scholarships.

ing the sentiments of all here assembled in wishing God“ The further objects are to extend the influence of such speed to the development of the scheme, which seems education indirectly among the men who are not selected likely to prove, if carried into effect, a great, if not the as scholars (through intercourse with those who have greatest, educational factor of Imperialism. travelled) by. systematic arrangements of the periods' But it may be objected here, is not your own horizon eligibility while they are still undergraduates.

circumscribed? Why should educational ideals be limited, To promote interest in imperial, international, and even by so extended a conception as Imperialism? Should domestic relations, civic and social problems, and to foster not the ultimate aim of all education be, not the federaa mutual sympathy and understanding imperially and tion of one race only, but the federation of the world internationally among students.

at large-the brotherhood of man? " To afford technical and industrial students facilities I am not concerned to deny that such a lofty conception to examine into questions of particular interest to them is the true end of all physical, moral, and mental trainin manufactures, &c., by observation in other countries ing. and by providing them with introductions to leaders in But if the master mind of a' Milton was content to industrial activity.

define true education to be “ that which fits a “To promote interest in travel as an educational factor perform justly, skilfully and magnanimously all the offices, among the authorities of Universities, with a view to the both public and private, of peace and war," it may well possibility of some kind of such training being included in suffice us if we extend our (at present) too narrow conthe regular curricula.

ceptions (the aim of which seems to be the cultivation of To promote interest other Universities, their aims a mere island patriotism) to a sphere which has for its and student life, the compulsory physical training, and end the imperialistic sentiment of a whole race. methods of working their ways through college, for It may, indeed, be well doubted whether a race-sentiexample, being valuable points for investigation.

ment is not an ultimate factor beyond which it is impossible “To promote international interchange for academic in an imperfect world to go. Universal philanthropy in work among English-speaking Universities; and, in the its most catholic sense is a sentiment which the limited case of the British Empire, to afford facilities for students conditions of the earth's surface seem to render impossible. of one division to gain, under favourable circumstances, So long as men's ambitions are an unlimited quantity, information relative the needs, development and and so long as the habitable globe remains, as it ever potentialities of other divisions; and to

promote must remain, a limited quantity, so long will the populaacademic interchange of students among the Universities tions of the world be continually liable to shifting moveof the Empire.

ments and frequent dislocations. Practical educationists, “As already indicated, there is a widespread interest then, must inevitably confine the scientific consideration in the movements so far as the United Kingdom is con- of aims and methods in education to the development of 'cerned ; while in Canada and the United States there is the highest interests of their race rather than of mankind also a widespread recognition of the value of the scheme : at large. and although committees have not been actually organised And that being so, the last point on which I would there as in this country, a very large body of the most insist in dealing with the educational factors of Imperialism prominent educationists are strongly in favour of the plan, is to emphasise the importance of what the educationists and have promised their co-operation if the scheme is

of the United States call civics as the binding power financed.

which should fasten together all the separate educational “It is proposed to establish two students' travelling faggots in any Imperial scheme of education-the duty bureaux, one in New York and one in London ; an of personal service to the State, the positive obligation American secretary (resident in New York) and a British which makes us all members incorporate in one Imperial secretary (resident in London), both of whom shall be system. In our love of individual freedom, in our jealousy college men appointed to afford every facility to any of interference with our individual liberty of action, in graduate or undergraduate of any University who wishes our insular disregard and depreciation of intellectual forces to visit the United States, Canada, or the United Kingdom working in our sister communities beyond the seas, for the purpose of obtaining an insight into the student, have lost sight of this civic responsibility which has ever national, and industrial life of those countries.

The lain on our shoulders and from which we can never disbureaux will undertake the work of providing information sociate ourselves, so long as our Empire remains as part relating to United States. Canadian, British, and other of our ancestral heritage.




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It is this positive duty towards each other and our after extraction, also showed striæ which it was difuko race beyond the seas which those who live in our island to distinguish from those produced by the Pleistocene ice. home have been slow in realising, and it has been a In the subsequent discussion : Drs. Fairchild,. Sirahar, real blot on our educational system that such ideas as Warren L'pham, and Dwerryhouse expressed the opinia Imperial responsibility and, Imperial necessities have not that Prof. Coleman had established his contention. been inculcated in the young people in our schools and Prof. Miller's paper was chiefly directed to bringing into colleges. As an illustration, I may observe that it has prominence the almost limitless mining possibilities of te been even debated and doubted in some responsible quarters Canadian pre-Cambrian rocks. He pointed out that in England whether the Union Jack should wave over our although they have as yet been very imperfectly expload, educational institutions on the days of national festivity they are already, in the Cobalt and Sudbury districts, and national observance.

the chief, or among the chief, world's source of nicari, To sum up.

By these and other kindred means I would cobalt, silver, and arsenic, while in the Michigan disirat urge a closer educational touch between the Mother their yield of copper and iron is one of the most important Country and the Empire at large.

in the world. The same may be said with regard to the Long ago a great Minister was able to say : “Our mica mines of Ontario. hold of the Colonies is in the close affection which grows The stratigraphy of the Palæozoic rocks of the British from common names, from kindred blood, and from Isles was represented by the reports of several of the similar privileges. These are ties which, though light as association's committees, including the following:-1) Mr. air, are strong as links of iron."

E. S. Cobbold, on the Cambrian rocks of Comley, ShropBut times have changed. To-day we are confronted shire; (2) Prof. S. H. Reynolds, on the igneous and with the problems of a vast and complicated Empire-associated rocks of the Glensaul district, Co. Galwas; great commonwealths, great dominions, sundered from and (3) Dr. A. Vaughan, on the faunal succession of the each other by long seas and half a world, and however Lower Carboniserous (Avonian) of the British Isles. The closely science has geographically brought them together, latter report included an important series of tables embody we cannot in soul and sympathy, nor ultimately in destiny, ing Dr. Vaughan's latest views on the subdivision of the remain attached, affiliated as mother and children should Lower Carboniferous rocks, and the correlation of thbe, unless we grapple to each other and understand each sequence in various parts of the British Isles. With the other in the greatest of all interests—the educational train- view of helping to bring Dr. Vaughan's work to the notice ing which we give to our children in the one part of of Canadian geologists, Prof. S. H. Reynolds exhibiti our Empire to make them suitable citizens in another. a series of lantern-slides of the two principal sections of the

In suggesting reforms and modifications in which this Bristol district, those of the Avon and of Burrington. He educational unity may best be expressed, forgive me if also contributed a paper on the lithology of the Burrington I have but touched, and touched inadequatcly, on the section. Another stratigraphical paper having reference to fringe of a great subject, the transcendent importance of the Carboniferous rocks of the south-west of England was which it requires no elaboration of mine to impress on that by Mr. H. Bolton, on new faunal horizons in the the earnest attention of the people of this great Dominion Bristol coalfield, in which further evidence was brought - which great Dominion may I be allowed to salute, with- forward of the occurrence of marine episodes in the Coalout flattervor favour, as the most favoured by natural measures of this part of the country. The only remaining beauty and by virgin wealth of all the children of our stratigraphical paper was one 'by Dr. D. Woolacott, on common Motherland ? May I salute her in terms which the classification of the Permian rocks of the north-east of formed the old toast with which the two greatest of our England. English public schools, Winchester and Eton, pledged each

(2) Glacial Geology. other when we met in our annual cricket contest : Mater Glacial geology naturally had much attention paid to it pulchra, filia pulchrior!

by the section when meeting in Canada, and the members

were to be congratulated on hearing from Dr. Warren GEOLOGY AT THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION.

Upham an account of the glacial Lake Agassiz, in con

nection with which his name is so well known. At its IF the number of geologists from the British Isles who maximum extent, according to Dr. Lpham, it covered an

attended the meeting of Section C was somewhat limited, the number from the American continent was con

area of about 110,000 square miles, exceeding the com

bined areas of the five great lakes tributary to the St. siderable, and it was greatly to them, and especially to Lawrence. Lake Winnipeg forms its reduced representative those from Canada, that the markedly successful character at the present day. Dr. Upham's paper was followed by of the sectional meetings was due. The Canadian geologists not only contributed a particularly interesting series

an interesting discussion, in which many leading Canadian

and American geologists took part. Members of the of papers, but also arranged two excursions, which were section had, further, the opportunity of seeing some of the largely attenda!.

glacial and other deposits of Lake Agassiz on excursions The papers read before the section may be classified in which were made to Stony Mountain and Bird's 'Hill.

Prof. A. P. Coleman, in a paper on the extent of the (1) Stratigraphical Geology.

ice sheets in the Great Plains, pointed out that while Mr. J. B. Tyrrell's account of the geology of Western boulders from the Archæan region to the east are spread Canada, which followed the president's address, afforded over the great plains as far west as Calgary, further to an excellent introduction to the succeeding series of papers the west an older drift, derived from the Rocky Mountain on local geology: Pre-Cambrian geology naturally occupied region, is met with, this sonctimes passing below the eastern a good deal of the attention of the section, which had the drift. In places boulders from the eastern drift are found advantage of hearing papers by Prof. A. P. Coleman on stranded 5000 feet up on the sides of the Rocky Moun• the bearing of pre-Cambrian geology on uniformitarianism, tains. These Prof. Coleman believes were stranded from and by Prof. W. G. 'Miller on the pre-Cambrian rocks of ice-dammed lakes at a time when the Rocky Mountain Canada. Prof. Coleman described the somewhat compli- region stood at a lower level than it does at present. cated subdivision which Canadian geologists recognise in Glacial geology was further represented by a paper bo the pre-Cambrian rocks, and pointed out the varied nature Dr. A. Strahan, on the glacial geology of South Wales: of their origin, including as they do quartzites, sand- bv a lantern lecture by Dr. A. R. Dwerryhouse, on the stones sometimes passing into arkose, carbonaceous shale, glacial geology of Britain, as illustrative of the work of limestone, igneous rocks both volcanic and intrusive, and the committee on erratic blocks, and by the report of the metamorphic rocks in great variety. The most interesting committee for the investigation of the fossiliferous drift at point about Prof. Coleman's paper was the evidence he | Kirmington, Lincolnshire, and elsewhere. brought forward for the existence of glacial conditions in pre-Cambrian (Huronian) times, and the bearing of this on

(3) Economic Geology. uniformitarianism. He exhibited stones which he had ex- This subject, as might have been expected, was well 19 tracted from the pre-Cambrian conglomerate of the Cobalt the fore, a series of most interesting papers on the ore district, the upper surface of which was scratched by the deposits of Canada being given by Canadian geologists, Pleistocene glaciation, while the lower (embedded) surface Prof. W. G Miller dealing with the gold, silver, and iron

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ores, Prof. A. P. Coleman with copper and nickel, Mr.

ENGINEERING AT THE BRITISH J. B. Tyrrell with placer mining, and Prof. T. L. Waller

ASSOCIATION, with the rare metals. Prof. Miller prefaced his description of the gold and silver mining with a general account of | THE proceedings in Section G consisted largely of mining in Canada. He pointed out that, until a few years

papers by Canadian engineers on a closely related ago: the central part of Canada was regarded as purely group of subjects, determined by the conditions of Winniagricultural. The discovery of the rich ore deposits of

peg. Winnipeg occupies a peculiar geographical position, Sudbury and Cobalt in 1908 completely changed this, and

similar in some respects to Singapore or Buenos Ayres, as the value of the mineral produce rose from about a million

the gate of a great productive area. This position, and dollars in 1901 to eighty-seven million dollars in 1908. The

the bearing on it of the communications to the section, most interesting feature of the mineral wealth of Canada

are most easily explained by recalling the geography of is its great variety. Canada is now the largest producer

the country. Canada consists roughly of five sections. in the world of nickel, cobalt, asbestos, and corundum.

(1) The Laurentian area, the so-called shield of Canada, As regards the immediate subject of his paper, Prof. Miller

is defined by the St. Lawrence and the chain of lakes stated that the output of gold from the Archæan districts

which extends through Winnipeg, Athabasca, and the was not great, but it was found in British Columbia and

Great Slave and Bear Lakes to the polar regions. This the Yukon, the latter district standing third in the world's

vast district lying round Hudson's Bay is in the main a output. Gold is found also in Nova Scotia, and has

wilderness of lakes, rocks, and forests, swept clean of all recently been discovered at Prince Albert, in Saskatchewan.

cultivable soil by Glacial ice, except in certain areas where

later Palæozoic rocks have been left over the Laurentian. The great silver-producing region is Cobalt. The Canadian production of iron is as yet comparatively unimportant.

(2) The rich agricultural country between the Laurentian Prof. Coleman pointed out that copper is found

and the Rocky Mountains. This, the modern

many parts of Canada, and in British Columbia some very low

provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta, is the grade ores are worked to a profit. Most of the copper of

northern section, reaching to 60° N. lat., of that geoOntario is found associated with nickel, the great locality graphical area of which the southern section is the basin for these substances being Sudbury, where the deposits

of the Mississippi. occur in the marginal portion of a laccolitic mass of

(3) The mountain region between the eastern foothills norite intruded between the Upper Huronian and the

of the Rockies and the Pacific, a strip 400 miles wide Animikie.

extending up the whole coast. In dealing with placer mining, Mr. J. B. Tyrrell pointed

(4) The fertile lands along the south of the St. Lawrence, out that it was almost confined to the mountainous region

New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and the peninsula between

Erie and Huron. of the west, and that the industry had gradually spread along the river valleys from California northwards until

(5) The Arctic regions of tundra and ice.

To these five sections must be added for administrative eventually the Klondyke deposits were met with. These owed their value rather to exceptional conditions of erosion

purposes another of equal importance. than to special richness. Mr. Tyrrell estimated that the

(6) The navigable route of St. Lawrence and the lakes. Yukon district had yielded hitherto about six million ounces

Winnipeg is the gate between (2) and (6). of gold, and might vield another four million.

This section (2), 1200 miles long from north-west to Prof. T. L. Waller concluded the series of papers on the

south-east, and from 300 to 500 miles wide, is of extramineral resources of Canada with a description of the

ordinary fertility, and especially adapted for growing wheat. rare metals. Platinum and palladium are found in small

The isothermals take a strong bend upwards in this region, quantities in the native state in placer workings at various

and wheat has been ripened as far north as the Great points. Platinum has also been found combined with

Slave Lake, in 62° N. lat. The fertility of the soil is such

that wheat can be grown remuneratively for many years arsenic in the decomposed superficial deposits of the Sudbury district. Canada is also rich in undeveloped deposits allowing the land to be fallow one year in four to prevent

in succession, and where the practice has obtained of of molybdenum and tungsten.

exhaustion, it has to be sparsely tilled in the seasons (4) Palaeontology and other Subjects.

following the fallow years to prevent the crops choking

themselves by their own exuberance. Of this area, only In addition to the president's masterly address on the

5 per cent. is yet cultivated, but in 1908 this produced 30 evolution of vertebrate life as shown by fossils, verte

million quarters of grain, and carried nearly 4 million brate palæontology was represented by two short papers, head of stock. also by the president, recording the discovery of dino

So long as the United States grows enough wheat for saurian remains in the Cretaceous rocks of Australia and

her own consumption, and until a new route is opened to the Trias of Brazil, and by the report of the committee the Atlantic by the Nelson or Churchill rivers on Hudson's appointed to investigate the footprints of the Trias of Great Bay, the main trade of the provinces must pass east Britain.

between Lake Winnipeg and Lake of the Woods. Here Other papers read before the section were by Mr. E.

on the Red River, where the fertile lands end and the Dixon, on unconformities on limestone and their con

Laurentian wilderness begins, is Winnipeg, on the site of temporaneous pipes and swallow-holes; by Prof. E. F.

an old Hudson Bay Co.'s fort, Upper Fort Garry. A better Chandler, on the rainfall run-off ratio in the prairies of site would have been at Selkirk or Lower Fort Garry, Central North America ; and by Dr. Tempest Anderson, lower down the river and nearer the lake, but the site of on the volcano of Metavanu, in the Samoa Islands. The

the great depôt was ultimately fixed by the Canadian eruptive phenomena of this volcano closely resemble those

Pacific Railway for indirect reasons. of Kilauea, in the Sandwich Islands ; but while the latter

The great engineering questions of the city are to find volcano, according to Dr. Anderson, is in its old age, the

the best means to develop the agricultural industry of the former shows the same phenomena with the exuberance

north-west, and to improve the trade routes, especially to of youth. A further interesting point in Dr. Anderson's the Atlantic. The papers presented to the Engineering paper was his confirmation by actual observation of the

Section dealt largely with these two subjects. Two papers subaqueous production of the pillow" structure in lavas.

on the grain industry, each of considerable length, were The reports of the following committees were also pre- contributed by Mr. John Miller, an official at the experisented :-on South African strata, by Prof. J. W. Gregory ;

mental farm at Indian Head, Saskatchewan, and by Mr. on topographical and geological terms in South Africa ; George Harcourt, Denuty Minister of Agriculture of the on geological photographs, this taking the form of an Province of Alberta. The latter of these, especially, was a exliibition of lantern-slides illustrating certain aspects of paper of exceptional ability and interest, the author bring British scenery ; on the crystalline rocks of Anglesey; on the composition of the Charnwood rocks ; on further ex

intimately acquainted with his subject and an admirable

lecturer. He exhibited a map showing some of the pvtremo cavations on Neolithic sites in north Grecce; and on the

points in which wheat has been successfully ripened, and salt lakes of Biskra. This latter report, which was re- the area of potential grain-growing country. The subjects presented merely by the title, refers to the work upon

of these papers were not strictly those of engineers. but which the late recorder of Section C, Mr. Joseph Lomas,

the urgent need for improved communications with which was engaged at the time of his lamented death.

other papers dealt could hardly have been realised without



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them. These other papers fell into two groups, viz. deep by the failure of the great cantilever bridge while under

and railway communications. The problems of construction. Mr. H. W. Lanigan wrote on the organisawheat transport are (1) to bring ocean steamers to the tion for the collection and transport of grain in the wheat nearest possible point to the wheat fields, and (2) to handle

As assistant manager of freight traffic on the and transport the grain to the ports as efficiently as Canadian Pacific Railway at Winnipeg he has an intimate possible. At present ocean-going steamers drawing not knowledge of that subject. The policy of the Canadian more than 27 feet of water can reach Montreal at all Government is to forbid the owners of elevators to trade tides, and this depth is being increased to 30 feet. Ships in wheat and to restrict them to the duties of collecting drawing 14 feet of water can pass between Montreal and and despatching, much as railways are restricted to the Lake Erie by the lower Ottawa river, the Lachine and work of carriers. The Government undertakes the inspecRideau canals, Lake Ontario, and the Welland canal. Erie, tion and grading of the wheat, and performs this work Huron, Michigan, and Superior can be navigated by vessels with extreme care, so that the wheat is sold by the farmer drawing 20 feet of water, the depth of water in the Soo and bought by the ultimate purchaser strictly by grade, locks. If the depth of water in the lower Ottawa river, not by sample. That is to say, the quality of the wheat and in the Lachine, Rideau, and Welland canais, in all of having been determined by the Government inspector, the which the depth is now 14 feet, could be increased to price paid per bushel is the current price for that quality. 22 feet, ocean steamers of, say, 7000 tons, by taking in ! The system is too complex for more than reference here, or discharging the last 1000 tons at Montreal, could reach but the advantage both to farmer and purchaser of an Lake. Superior and charge or discharge cargo at Port authoritative determination of quality is obvious. Arthur, the nearest point to Winnipeg. Thus, subject to Besides the papers we have referred to, which are all a small proportion being transhipped at Montreal, cargoes mainly of Canadian interest, three electrical papers were could be carried in bulk by ocean steamers of the size of contributed by Prof. Marchant, Prof. Thornton, and Mr. ordinary tramps between Port Arthur, in the very heart E. A. Watson respectively, all dealing with three-phase oi the continent, and any Atlantic port.

transmission lines.

Other papers

were by Sir John This route, however, is open to serious objection in Thornycroft, on skimming boats; by Colonel Ruttan, the that it lies through the Detroit River, and is liable to city engineer of Winnipeg, on the high-pressure water interruption by political difficulties with the United States. ' plant of the city ; by Mr. C. B. Smith, on a new hydroA new canal route which is not subject to this objection electric power plant now being erected by the city authorihas been surveyed. The scheme, which is called the ties; by Mr. C. E. Larard, on torsional tests on materialsGeorgian Bay Canal Scheme, provides for a canal between a very elaborate and detailed paper ; by Prof. Coker, 01 Montreal and Lake Superior by way of the Ottawa River, an optical method of exhibiting strain; by Mr. Dugald Lake Nipissing, and the Pickerel and French rivers, having Clerk, on the work of the gaseous explosions committee; a minimum depth of 22 feet and locks 650 feet long, at and by Prof. Foster, on a systematic examination of the a cost of 20 millions sterling. This canal would accom- properties of the different coals of Canada now being modate ships of the type now used to carry ore and coal carried out at McGill University. We have left to the between Cleveland and Lake Superior, as well as ordinary last a paper on the Panama Canal by Colonel Goethals ocean-going tramp steamers. As a set-off to the cost, the and Sir William White's address. Colonel Goethals is water-powers that would become available are

put at

engineer-in-chief and president of the Isthmian Canal one million horse-power, and the value of the country

Commission. The paper was a long one, and very fully that would be opened up would be very large. It seems illustrated by lantern-slides. Colonel Goethals himself was probable that the work will be started before long.

unable to come to Winnipeg to deliver it, but Lieut. On this side of the subject three considerable papers | Goethals, of the United States Army, who has been were read.

Colonel Anderson described the navigation 'engaged on the canal under his father, gave an account of works on the St. Lawrence up to Montreal, and showed it and exhibited the illustrations. It will be remembered inaps of all the lights and buoys, and of the dredging that the failure of the French operations was largely due accomplished and still to be done. Mr. St. Laurent placed to two causes, one of which was the excessive mortality in the president's hands copies of the Government reports among the labourers and staff from tropical fevers, and and plans of the Georgian Bay Canal surveys, and the the other the violent floods of the Chagres river. Since latter read a paper to the section on the subject. In that time the cause of tropical fevers has been traced to addition, Major George Stephens contributed an admirable the mosquito, and the American engineers, with characterpaper on the St. Lawrence River as an imperial high- , istic thoroughness, have extirpated the mosquito over the way, and on the importance of Montreal as a central whole of the canal zone, thereby bringing the rate of port of distribution.

mortality to the figure of a well-organised town in a The Hudson Bay route is not likely to be developed in temperate climate. The measures which have enabled them the immediate future, and little reference was made to it. to do this are of extraordinary interest, and the results are The Canadian Northern Railway has surveyed a route to almost romantic. The engineering difficulties, which were Churchill, on the Hudson Bay, though the mouth of the mainly the floods of the Chagres, mentioned above, and Nelson may, ultimately be preferred, as it is said that this the enormous excavation of the Culebra ridge, have been river, draining lands far to the south, even beyond the met by a design which promises to be quite successful. U.S. frontier, is very free from shore ice. In the future The Culebra ridge is much nearer to the Pacific than to Canadians look to the Nelson River being made navigable the Atlantic shore, and deep valleys run down from the up to Lake Winnipeg, and from there the Saskatchewan divide to the Caribbean Sea, one of which carries the may carry ships to

Chagres river. Across this an immense earthwork dam,

, constructed Canadian Pacific Railway, contributed a paper on important works on that railway. The Lethbridge Viaduct | The floods of the Chagres and of the other rivers, its is an immense structure, more than a mile long and more tributaries, flowing down these mountain valleys, can disthan 300 feet high, and the mode of construction was charge themselves into this large body of water without strikingly bold and effective. The revision of the grades doing any damage to the canal works, however violent in Kicking Horse Pass, involving the construction of two the floods may be. The level of the water in the lake lon spiral tunnels in the rock, was also described, and

is gulated by a spillway, built in a natural hill which the great increase obtained in the loads hauled by a given forms part of the Gatun dam, discharging below the dam engine-power. Careful grading on lines where the heavy into the old bed of the Chagres. The surface of the lake loads of grain and other material usual in Canada are

is 85 feet above the mean sea-level, and is reached by hauled is of extreme importance, and much was said on

three locks on each side. The lake is amply sufficient to the cost of rail transport both in this paper and in two provide the necessary water for lockage and waste during others by Mr. Macpherson and Mr. Lanigan. Mr. Duncan the dry seasons. Lastly, this high summit-level has re. Macpherson described the organisation of the surveying duced very largely the necessary amount of excavation in parties for the new line between Monckton and Winnipeg,

the Culebra cut. Even then, however, this amounted to to be continued to the Pacific coast as the Grand Trunk ! 150 million cubic yards. Besides photographic views of Pacific. It is this line which is interrupted near Quebec the works and machinery, there were exhibited copies of

Mr.T. E. Schwitzer, assistant chief engineer of the the Gauaredailes tine acaso in the centre of the isthmus.

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