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THE ISLE OF WIGHT.1
realising the difficult task that I was undertaking ";
and he expresses himself content to have served as a NOWHERE else in this country can the stologist whorrible example ble if by doing so those who.com
find, along a of , after to by of many varied and magnificent cliff sections of the omission and commission. Such modesty disarms Cretaceous and Tertiary formations, and in no British criticism, and Mr. Morey's energy and enterprise area of equal size—a hundred and sixty square miles- deserve the warm thanks and congratulations of all can the botanist collect so many species of flowering who are interested in the natural his.ory of the Isle of plants, as in the “ Garden Isle,” which has long been Wight. a happy hunting-ground for field naturalists. Its rich As is the case with all compilations, the book is flora and fauna, conditioned largely by its diversified unequal in quality, but we feel bound to point out soil, has already been dealt with in various works, two defects which, though common enough in works notably in Venables' “ Guide to the Isle of Wight of this kind, detract considerably from its value and (1860), and in the Hampshire section of the “Victoria interest. County History " series.
A book which attempts to compress into a comThis new "Guide" contains a large number of paratively small space an enumeration of the entire
new records, and will at least form a good basis upon fauna and flora of a rich district, with an account of which resident and visiting naturalists may build a its geology, to say nothing of articles on palæolithic complete natural history of the district. There can be implements, meteorology, and even earthquakes, must no question as to Mr. Morey's qualifications for the necessarily consist largely of a census catalogue of editorship of this volume, since he has worked at the species. Lists of species are undeniably useful, and fauna and flora of the island for forty years, and in not to be despised when compiled carefully, but the producing the “Guide” has obtained the services of ideal to be aimed at in a real natural history is surely a capable band of systematists in the various branches something that shall go beyond, and in some respects dealt with. One cannot but admire his industry, be the antithesis of, a mere list. Beyond a few.vague versatility, and enthusiasm. He tells us, “when, references to the bare fact that the distribution of nearly three years ago, I decided to bring out a work species of flowering plants, mosses, &c., is affected which should fairly illustrate the fauna and flora and by the characters of rocks and soils, we look in vain the natural history generally of the Isle of Wight, I for any evidence of the scientific ecological spirit which did so, almost literally, with fear and trembling, fully animates such works as Baker's “North Yorkshire,”
1 " A Guide to the Natural History of the Isle of Wight." A Series of Lees’ “West Yorkshire," and Wheldon and Wilson's Contributions by Specialists, relating to the various branches of Natural “West Lancashire," and has made them valuable History and kindred subjects. Edited by Frank Morey. Pp. xx+560. (Newport, 1.W.: County Press; london: w. Wesley and "Son*19690; contributions to the growing literature of plant net
ecology. The three books cited are, of course, limited NO
to the botany of each district, but a general sketch of string of incoherent and inaccurate sentences, repeatthe distribution of the flowering plants, at any rate, ing and perpetuating long since exploded errors and should have been given in this “Guide." The island mare's-nests. Lichenologists, we know, are a stiff. would afford excellent scope for a botanical survey, on necked generation, but surely it is time they hesitated the lines of the well-known work done by Dr. Smith, to record in print their refusal to recognise the dual Dr. Moss, and other ecologists, in various parts of nature of the lichen thallus, which has been fully and Britain. It is greatly to be hoped that in a future finally established. There can be no excuse, either, for edition of, or supplement to, this Guide" it will be the hepaticologist who tells us that the liverworts are found possible to include a chapter on plant distribu- “ linked to the lichens” by means of their thalloid tion, with a vegetation map of the island, and, for forms! The account of the relationship between the comparison and correlation, a geological map. This liverwort Frullania and the rotifer which sometimes would, if carefully done, preferably by an ecologically occupies its pitchers is entirely imaginative. The list minded botanist residing in the district, undoubtedly of hepatics (liverworts) is conspicuous by the omission enhance the value of the book and secure for it more of several species which are certainly found in the than the local interest that attaches to a merely island, and often abundantly in places, such as Anthofloristic work.
laevis, Scapania nemorosa, and Lepidocia reptans.
The articles by Mr. G. W. Colenutt (geology), Mr. P. Wadham (fishes, mammals, &c.), and Mr. R. H. Fox (birds) stand out as refreshing oases in the arid desert of species lists, being written in a “naturestudy ” spirit which can hardly be said to characterise the work of the other contributors. The "Guide" is illustrated by twenty-six excellent plates, chiefly from photographs by Mr. H. F. Poole, two of which we are permitted to reproduce here.
SLEEPING SICKNESS." I T may be taken as definitely established that sleep(Trypanosoma gambiense), and that this trypanosome is conveyed by a tsetse-fly (Glossina palpalis). But if we proceed to analyse and extend this proposition we soon get into difficulties. We do not know for certain whether man is the only “reservoir ” of this trypanosome, or whether monkeys and other mammals, especially native dogs, can also harbour it. Should this prove to be so—though the balance of evidence is against the supposition—it must materially affect prophylactic measures. If we consider next the mode by which the trypanosome is conveyed we find ourselves in the midst of the most conflicting evidence. It is still uncertain whether the transmission is mechanical or whether there is a cycle of development a of the trypanosome in the fly; facts appear to be all in favour of the first view, analogy all in favour of the latter. Nor is the question a purely academical one, for if the transmission is mechanical, then the flies are no longer infective after the infecting reservoir (man) is removed ; if, however, there is a cycle of development, then it remains to be determined how long an infected fly can remain infective after the infecting source is removed.
If, again, we consider the question, Can sleeping Photo.)
(H. F. Poole.
sickness be conveyed by any other species of tsetseFIG. 2.-White Stork-a rare visitor-captured at Shorwell in 1902. From fly than Gl. palpalis ? we must confess our ignorance. "A Guide to the Natural History of the Isle of Wight.
The balance of evidence certainly seems to be against
the possibility, but should it be shown that other The second suggestion we venture to make, with species can convey the disease, then the question of reference generally to books similar in scope to this prophylaxis would be even more difficult than it now “Guide,” is that most of the systematists responsible is. These reports show that these are some of the for the various lists of plants and animals given in questions that urgently need solution, but there are local naturalistic compilations would do well to obtain others of equal importance which arise in the immethe cooperation of a biological botanist or zoologist diate carrying out of prophylactic measures. They when writing their prefatory remarks on the group concern the Äy itself, its habits, duration of its life, of plants or animals they are dealing with.. So far its breeding grounds, its food, its powers of flight, its as this "Guide" is concerned, we refer chiefly, as likes and dislikes in regard to foliage, trees, shrubs, examples, to the sections dealing with some of the cryptogamic plants. It would be far better for the grass, &c. These questions are all important, and average cryptogamic systematist to pass straight on 1 “Reports of the Sleeping Sickness Commission of the Royal Society."
No. ix. to his list and say nothing whatever about the life
2 The existence of such a cycle is now practically established by the history and development of his group than to write a recent work of Kleine confirmed by Bruce.
in our opinion it is imperative to appoint one or more important to note that such areas are numerous, and officers with special entomological knowledge to study may often be only a few hundred yards away. Fresh these points .minutely. It is true that these reports infection of the fly is also avoided by preventing the afford evidence that the officers concerned in these removal of infected natives to uninfected ny areas. investigations have made additions to our knowledge The applicability of this measure depends mainly upon on these points, but the other duties of these ofticers the “ attitude ” of the native. are so multifarious that valuable time is being lost (3) Measures directed against the trypanosome itself, through this defect. It is true also that in the i.e. the treatment of infected persons, are bound up epidemic in Uganda the condition of things is so closely with the segregation of the sick. The treatterrible that it is impossible to wait for the solution ment of the segregated in fly-free areas by atoxyl or of all these questions, however important, before other arsenic preparations is the only one that is at any action is taken, and we may now consider what, all effective, but it must be admitted that the results with the present available knowledge, is being done are disappointing, and that the good results of the to check the epidemic. The means of prophylaxis may drug are in many cases only temporary. The patient's be considered under three aspects :-(1) Those directed blood becomes free from trypanosomes (and presumagainst the fly; (2) those directed against the carrier ably non-infective, though this is not proved), and so of the trypanosome, i.e. man; (3) those directed against the chance of infection of the fly, if patients come in the trypanosome itself.
contact with fly areas, becomes less. (1) With regard to measures directed against the Time will show how far these measures, the fly. It has been found, and it is a matter of the numerous important details of which we have to leave highest importance, that the “ natural range ” of the unconsidered, will be successful. Those engaged in fly, i.e. the distance to which flies follow from water carrying out these arduous and dangerous measures in search of blood, is, as a rule, under 50 yards. The have hope that although sleeping sickness may not be still more important fact has been determined that eradicated or the fly totally annihilated, yet that the clearing and burning or removing the undergrowth epidemic will soon be under control. It must be the for a distance of 100 yards in either direction, e.g. sincere wish of everyone that this hope may be from a ferry for a strip 50-100 yards broad, has justified.
J. W. W. S. the effect of banishing the fly. It is this method, then, i.e. banishing the fly by clearing from its “normal fly range,” that is the basis of the methods now being
THE CONTAMINATION OF MILK. carried out in Uganda. extensively around a village, but simply to clear THE contamination of milk has been the subject
of a detailed research by Dr. Orr, carried out comparatively small strips of the “fly. range " fre- on behalf of the councils of the county boroughs of quented by man... Although flies may occur in the Bradford, Hull, Leeds, Rotherham and Sheffield, and village itself, unless there is a “ fly area” present the administrative counties of the East and West these flies are those which have followed their victims Ridings of Yorkshire. Of previous investigations, beyond the "
fly range to the village. If the flies Delépine concluded that though his results did not of the “ fly range" are banished, then, ipso facto, the exclude the possibility of infection at the home of “ following ” flies also disappear.. A typical fly area, the consumer, or during transit from the farm, they though there are exceptions, consists of more or less did indicate that infection at the farm, or through open water with contiguous and especially overhang- vessels infected at the farm and used by the farmer ing shade and generally a fairly well-defined bank or for the storage and carriage of milk, was of parashore. If, then, clearing can permanently banish the mount importance. On the other hand, Newsholme fily, and we believe that this will be found to be the attaches little importance to infection at the cowcase, because the fly still has plenty of uncleared shed. Dr. Orr's investigation was carried out in a area to frequent—though the fact that its human blood systematic manner, and not only were the bacteriosupply is at the same time removed may modify the logical examinations carefully performed, but, in addi. result-it is an important measure of prophylaxis, tion, the condition of the cows and cowsheds and though its value is perhaps restricted to somewhat the effects of season and atmospheric tenperature small areas and special conditions.
were noted. First, the bacterial content of the milk If the fly cannot be removed by clearing, then the in the udder was estimated, and it was found that population must be deported from the vicinity of the the fore-milk (that first milked) contained from 18,000 to fly. This measure has been extensively carried out 48,000 microorganisms per cubic centimetre, and the in Uganda by the removal of populations from the milk after the removal of the fore-milk 890 to 4800 per lake to inland fly-free areas two miles away, to prevent cubic centimetre. traffic from the lake, which is responsible for the
It is generally agreed that the milk as secreted is great bulk of the infection; but in many cases there sterile, the microorganisms in the milk as drawn are serious difficulties in the way. Further, the being derived from lodgment and multiplication in removal of populations still non-infected from a poten- | the teats and cistern. tially dangerous fly area to a safe fly-free area would
Dirt on the udder is a fruitful source of contaminabe of the greatest importance, and would form a more
tion, and, during milking, dust, &c., from the udder striking object-lesson to the native of the value of
adds much to the bacterial content of the milk. Dust these measures than the removal of an infected popu. in the cowsheds, and the entrance of dirt during lation, because a certain, probably high percentage transit and delivery, further add to the contamination, of these latter will eventually die of sleeping sickness, so that the milk, when it reaches the consumer, may although in a safe area; whereas this would not be contain an appalling number of microbes. The chief the case if the population removed was non-infected. conclusions derived from Dr. Orr's work are :
(2) As the two measures, clearing and deportation, of the healthy, are undertaken with the object in view
(1) Of the total organisms in the milk used by the conof preventing access of the fly to man, so segregation During railway transit, at the retailer's premises, and in
sumer, the greatest number are contributed by the farmer. of the sick prevents fresh infection of the fly, and
the consumer's house, smaller amounts are added, the diminution of the infectivity of the fly in a fly area. amount in each instance being apparently about the same. This implies the removal of the sick of a village to (2) Of the glucose-fermenting or intestinal organisms another village or camp in a fly-free area, and it is and the streptococci, by far the greatest number are added
at the farm. The retailer adds a certain number, the con- sion at the present time. There is a widespread
feeling that the province ought to have a provincial (3) The sediment or dirt gains entrance to the milk university of the type provided in many States of the chiefly at the cowshed. In 86-8 per cent. of the samples Republic to the south, and entirely free from any examined there was no increase in the sediment when sold
denominational influences. by the retailer, but a decrease in 68.8 per cent. (4) The farmer was responsible for the Bacillus, enteri University building. Section 'A will find its tem
Five of the sections (B, D, G, I, K) will meet in the tidis sporogenes (Klein) in the milk consumed in 66.6 per cent. of the samples. In 111 per cent of the samples porary home in Wesley College, where three rooms these bacilli were added by the retailer or the consumer, will be set aside for the meetings. Section E will be while in 22-2 per cent. the source was doubtful.
placed in the Convocation Hall at Manitoba College,
and Section F in a class-room of the same institution. Various suggestions are made for improving the Section L will have the honour of sitting in the milk supply, and the imposition of the following Legislative Chamber of the Provincial Government, standards is advocated :
while agriculture (subsection of K), and Sections H (1) A bacterial standard of
than 50,000 and C, will meet in the Alexandra, Carlton, and organisms per c.c.
Isbister Schools respectively. (2) Milk not to contain glucose-fermenting bacteria in ' All these meeting places are conveniently near the less than 1/10 c.c.
reception room. (3) A sediment standard (at first) not exceeding 40
The local sectional secretaries are as follows:-A, volumes per million.
Prof. F. Allen, professor of physics, University of Altogether, this report on the milk supply is one Manitoba ; B, J. W. Shipley, assistant to the professor of the most important that has appeared in this of chemistry, University of Manitoba; C, R. T. country, and should be brought to the notice of all Hodgson, Brandon Collegiate Institute, Brandon ; producers and retailers of this important article of diet.
THE WINNIPEG MEETING OF
E are now in a position to
give some further details about the local arrangements for the British Association meeting in Winnipeg during the last week in August next, and also the provisional programmes of the tions.
The Drill Hall will be used as the reception room. The main floor is 147 feet by 87 feet, so that there is no fear of undue crowding. Arrangements will be made for free access to the Parliament building grounds adjoining.
On the opposite side of Broadway are the University building and grounds. The University is a small and by no means beautiful structure. It resembles, in fact, in size and
University of Manitoba. (For Sections B, D, G, I, and K.) general style the public elementary schools of the city. But it must be explained that the D, C. A. Baragar, University of Manitoba ; E, Alex. University at present only teaches scientific subjects. McIntyre, Normal School, Winnipeg ; F, W. Manahan, Arts, medicine, and agriculture are taught in Winnipeg; G, Prof. E. Brydone-Jack, professor of
, " affiliated ” colleges which are scattered in various civil engineering, University of Manitoba; H, not yet parts of the city. Thus, the classics and modern appointed; 1, Dr. Wm. Webster, demonstrator of languages are taught in the four " affiliated ” de- physiology, University of Manitoba; K, Prof. A. H. nominational colleges, St. Boniface (Roman Catholic), Reginald Buller, professor of physiology, University St. John's (Church of England), Manitoba College of Manitoba; Principal W. J. Black, Manitoba Agrí. (Presbyterian), and Wesley College (Methodist); cultural College; L, D. M. Duncan, registrar of the medicine is taught in the Manitoba Medical College, University of Manitoba. and agriculture in the Manitoba Agricultural College A few hints to travellers may not be out of place. (Provincial Government) at Tuxedo Park. The Uni. For the ocean voyage, heavy coats and wraps and a versity of Manitoba (also a Government institution) travelling rug would be great comforts, if not absolute has been a teaching institution for five or six years. necessities, as it is never very warm on the North Founded in 1871 an examining board, the Atlantic route. These, however, should be packed University itself at present undertakes instruction in away for the overland journey, otherwise they will mathematics, chemistry, physics, botany, physiology, give rise to considerable inconvenience. pathology and bacteriology, and civil and electrical · Travellers from Europe are specially warned not to engineering. But chairs in English history and carry with them in the train more baggage than is political economy have been recently established, and absolutely necessary for the journey. Each person these new departments will commence work next ought, indeed, to be content with a suit-case and October. The government and organisation of the perhaps a small handbag: All kit-bags, gladstone L'niversity is undoubtedly in an unsatisfactory state, bags, and such like are quite out of place, as there is and is, in fact, the subject of a Government Commis- no space provided for these, and they may be a great
quisance to everybody. An elaborate toilet, at any ever, make it desirable to carry out such extended rate, is not possible during the railway journey, but trips before the meeting, and it is understood that some the railway companies' sleeping cars are provided with members have already arranged to do this. The ex. sufficient lavatory accommodation. Everything except cursions are not among the official arrangements of the suit-case and hand baggage should be checked the Association, but further particulars may be obthrough to destination.
tained from the London office, Burlington House, W. To any American, or indeed to anyone who has We are informed that Sir Joseph Thomson, in his ever travelled on the North American continent, such presidential address to the Association, will touch advice may seem quite superfluous, but it is rare that on the following subjects :—The importance of ori. one travels across the country or witnesses the de- ginal research as a means of education; the advanparture of trai is without noticing some Englishman tages and disadvantages as a training for work in struggling to convey huge piles of luggage into a science of the systems of education now in force in our railway car; he is usually prevented from so doing by schools and universities; the light thrown by recent the porter, but if he succeeds his belongings soon investigation on the nature of electricity; on the relabecome a trouble to himself and a nuisance to his tion between matter and æther, and the part played fellow-travellers.
by the æther in modern physics; and a discussion of In regard to clothing, for Winnipeg during the week some problems raised by the discovery of radium. of the visit travellers should be provided with the same sort of selection as would be desirable at a meet
SECTIONAL PROGRAMMES. ing in Great Britain. The days in the latter part of SECTION A (MATHEMATICAL PHYSICAL SCIENCE). August are usually hot, and the nights pleasantly cool. President, Prof. E. Rutherford, F.R.S.—The arrange'Those undertaking the excursion to the Pacific coast ments for the meetings of this section are at present very should be provided with some warm clothing for the provisional. After the address of the president of the mountains.
section, the most important items in the provisional pro
gramme are two discussions, one on positive electricity, to be opened by Sir J. J. Thomson, F.R.S., and the second on earth tides, to be opened by Prof. A. E. H. Love, F.R.S. The papers promised include the following :-photographs of recent comets, Prof. E. Barnard ; new photographs of Jupiter taken at Flagstaff Observatory, Percival Lowell; on sun-spots and magnetic effects, Dr. L. A. Bauer; the structure of the stellar system, G. C. Comstock: the asymptotic expansions of Legendre functions, Dr. J. W. Nicholson ; on a continuant expressed as the product of linear factors, W. H. Metzler ; luminosity and persistence-of-vision curves, Prof. Frank Allen; variation of the specific heat of mercury at high temperatures, Prof. H. T. Barnes; the effect of temperature-variations on the luminous discharge in gases for low pressures, R. F. Earhart. This list includes only those papers for which definite titles have been received ; many others are promised. Friday morning, August 27, will be set aside for papers
of interest to chemists, and the section Manitoba College. (For Sections E and F.)
will meet in joint session with Section
B (Chemistry). Those intending to visit Winnipeg for the meeting SECTION B (CHEMISTRY). President, Prof. H. E. Armhave been provided with postcard forms to fill in, strong, F.R.S.-The provisional programme
is giving various particulars of use to the local com- follows :-Joint sitting with the Section of Botany and mittee. These may be obtained from the assistant Subsection of Agriculture to discuss “ wheat” from secretary, in London, and should, with any other several points of view, including requirements of the communications with regard to the meeting, be wheat crop, influence of external conditions, review
of the chemical work addressed to the local secretaries, University of quirements, wheat breeding, the history of the wheat
on strength, the miller's Manitoba, Winnipeg. In connection with the meeting, arrangements have plant, and the economics of the subject. (See pro
gramme of the Subsection of Agriculture.) Joint been made by Mr. M. B. Cotsworth, of the Natural sitting with the Physiology Section discuss food. History Society of British Columbia, Victoria, B.C., Combustion, Prof. W. A. Bone, F.R.S.; chlorophyll, Prof. on behalf of some of the members of the Association, Willstätter; papers dealing with the physical chemistry of to make a trip northward along the Pacific coast sulphur, Prof. Alex. Smith ; (1) rotatory dispersion, (2), the from Victoria or Vancouver to Alaska. The journey cadmium arc, Dr. T. M. Lowry; (1) mercurous sulphate to Prince Rupert, Skagway, and back occupies ten for standard cells, (2) on the constancy of the hydrogen gas days, costs about 141., and may be made either before electrode, Dr. C. J. J. Fox. Reports of committees :the meeting at Winnipeg or from September 19 to: 19: (0) electroanalysis ; (d) dynamic isomerism.
(a) hydroaromatic substances; (b) aromatic nitroamines ;
This report An extension to Dawson (Klondike) and back brings
as to initiate discusthe total time up to three weeks, and the cost to about will be presented in such form
sion. 321., while the round trip from Vancouver to Dawson,
Section C (GEOLOGY). President, Dr. A. Smith Woodthence down the Yukon river to Nome and back by ward, f.R.S.-Dr. Woodward's presidential address will the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands, occupies about be on the evolution of the vertebrates. There will be a month, and costs 401. Climatic considerations, how- reports of research committees on :-the erratic blocks of