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SIDEREAL NOON OR MERIDIAN PASSAGE OF THE VERYAL EQUINOX FOR 1893.

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Winter begins 1894, December 21, 3 hours 1 minute evening.
Spring begins 1895, March 20, 3 hours 41 minutes, evening.
Summer begins 1885, June 21, 11 hours 36 minutes, morning.

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Autumn begins 1895, September 23, 2 hours 3 minutes, morning. Winter begins, 1895, December 21, 8 hours 31 minutes,

evening. To ascertain when any Star or constellation found in the following Table will be on the upper merid. lan, add the numbers opposite

in the left-hand column of figures to the time of " Sidereal Noon" found in these pages. For the RISING of a Star, subtract the number opposite in the right-hand column of figures from its meridian passage. For the setting of a star, add the same number to its meridian passage. Those marked (....) revolve in a circle of perpetual apparition, and do not rise or set north of the latitude of New York (40° 42' 40'), for which latitude the semidiurnal arcs are calculated. The civil day begins at midnight, and consequently 24 hours after midnight, or 12 hours from noon, is morning of the succeeding day, and more than 24 hours from noon, is evening of the next day. This table is arranged in the order of culmination.

Stars having an asterisk (*) in the last column are seen only in Florida and Texas, when passing the meridian. Computed by S. Hart Wright, Ph.D., Penn Yan, N. Y.

NAME OF STAR.

For
Meridian
Passage.
For Ris-
ing and
Setting

NAME OF STAR.

For
Meridian
Passage.
For Ris.
ing and
Setting.

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y Ceti

*

H. M.H. M.

H. M.H. M. a Andromeda (Alpheratz).... 0 37 52 B Ursa Majoris (Merak). 10 51 B Cassiopeia (Caph).... 0 4 a Ursæ Majoris (Dubke).

10 56 y Pegasi (Algenib).. 0 81 6 51 O Leonis

11 71 6 57 a Phoenices 0 20 225 8 Leonis (Zozma).

11 77 17 a Cassiopeia (Schedir). 0 35 18 Leonis (Denebola)..

11 42 6 51 B Ceti (Diphda) 0 38 4 53 y Urse Majoris (Phad)

11 46
y Cassiopeiæ.
0 50 al Crucis (Acrux)

12 19
1 3
y Crucis..............

12 21 B Andromeda (Merach).

1

4 8 29 B Corvi...................... 12 27 4 35 i Ceti 1 19 5 30 B Crucis

12 39 a Ursa Minoris (Polaris).. 1 21 € Ursa Majoris (Alioth)

12 47 a Eridani (Achernar).. 1 34 8 Virginis

12 471 6 14 5 Ceti 1 46 5 22 e Virginis....

12 55) 6 40 B Arietis 1 49 7 14 a Virginis (Spica)

13 18 5 23 a Piscium (El Rischa)

1 57 6 as Ursæ Majoris (Mizar).... 13 18 y Andromeda (Almaadi)

1 57 9 21 n Ursa Majoris (Benetnasch) 13 41 a Arietis 2 1 7 26 B Centauri (Agena)..

13 54 * 2 38 6 9 a Bootes (Arcturus).

14 9 7 12 • Ceti (Mira) 2 11 5 48 a Centauri (Bengula)

14 30 a Ceti (Menkar). 2 561 6 13 a? Libræ...

14 431 5 4 B Persei (Algol)

3 1 § 10 B Ursa Minoris (Kochab) 14 59 a Persei (Algenib)..

3 161
B Libre..

15 9 5 29 n Tauri (The Seven Stars) 3 41 7 29a Corona Borealis (Alphecca)... 15 28 7 41 Tauri (Aldebaran).. 4 29 6 58 a Serpentis (Unuk)...

15 87 6 23 a Aurige (Capella) 5 8 10 14 6 Scorpii.

15 52 4 37 B Orionis (Rigel) 5 9 5 31 B1 Scorpii....

15 57 4 49 y Orionis (Bellatrix). 5 18 6 21 a Scorpii (Antares).

16 20 4 20 B Tauri (El Nath) 5 19 7 628 Herculis (Rutilicus).

16 23 7 20 Orionis (Mintaka) 5 26 5 59 a Herculis

17 71 6 51 € Orionis (Anilam) 5 805 56 a Scorpii (Lesuth)...

17 23 3 18 4 Colume (Phot).. 5 35 3 37 y Aræ..

17 11 * Orionis (Saiph)... 5 42 5 26 Aru..

17 21 a Orionis Betelguese) 5 49 6 26 B Draconis (Rastoban).

17 25 B Auriga (Menkalina). 5 51 953 0 Scorpii

17 27 2 27 i Geminorum

6 87 24 a Ophiuchi (Ras Alhague). 17 27 6 45 & Canis Majoris 6 15 4 illy Draconis (Etanin)

17 51 B Canis Majoris (Mirzam) 6 17 4 5541 Sagittarii..

18 51 4 43 a Argus (Canopus) 6 21 e Sagittarii ..

18 14 3 35 y Geminorum Alhena). 6 31 6 59 a Lyræ (Vega)..

18 30 8 51 e Geminorum Mebusta). 6 377 36 B Lyra...

18 431 8 17 a Canis Majoris (Sirius) 6 401 5 1 o Sagittarii

18 46 4 19 e Canis Majoris (Adhara)... 6 51 4 na Aquilæ (Altair)..

19 431 6 30 & Geminorum (Wasat). 7 13 7 22 a: Capricorni (Giedi)..

20 91 5 15 m Canis Majoris (Aludra). 7 19 4 5 a Pavonis

20 11 a Geminorum (Castor). 7 27 8 11 a Cygni (Deneb).

20 35 9 56 a Canis Minoris (Procyon).. ✓ 33 6 19 a Cephei (Alderamin)..

21 13 B Geminorum (Pollux) 7 38 7 50B Aquarii.

121 23 5 39 y Argus.. 8 5 i 31 B Cephei (Alphirk)

121 22 < Argus 8 19 e Pegasi (Enìf)..

21 36 6 33 5 Argus (Naos).. 7 59 2 58 | Aquarii

21 57 5 57 1 Argus 9 13

21 58 1 21 Hydrae (Alphard)....... 9 21 5 31 5 Pegasi..

22 336 36 Leonis

9 38 7 31 a Pisces Australis (Fomalhaut) 2 48 4 0 # Leonis 9 45 7 42 8 Pegasi (Scheat).

22 55 7 44 a Leonis (Regulus) 10 1 6 44 a Pegasi (Markab).

22 56 6 52 gel Leonis (Al Gieba) 10 13 7 14 y Cephei (Er Rai).

23 31 7 Argus..

10 39 EXAMYLE. The Seven Stars will be on the meridian for Jan. 1, 1895, at 8 h.56 m. evening, and will set at 4h. 25 m. in the morning of Jan. 3d, and would rise on the 1st at i h. 27 m. in the afternoon, and would not

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TIMES OF UPPER MERIDIAN PASSAGE OF POLARIS, OR NORTH STAR, 1893. Surveyors and civil engineers may obtain the variation of the magnetic needle for any place in the United States by directing their compus ie the North Star (Polaris) when it is upon the meridian, as given in the table below, for the upper culmination: or 11 hours 58 minutes before or after, when the star is on the lower meridian. Exact local time is used in the table, and the timepiece used must be correct, and the bearing of the star taken promptly on time, and that bearing will be the true variation of the needle. An error of only a few seconds in the timepiece will vitiate the bearing found; therefore, it will be much better to take the bearing when the star is furthest east or west, or at its greatest elongation, as observations made upon it then are not affected materially by small errurs of timepieces. To use this table for places west of the Washington meridian, subtract 10 seconds for each hour of longitude west of Washington. When the upper culmination occurs in the daytime from February 1 to August 1, use the lower culmination.

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AZIMUTH TABLE OF POLARIS, OR NORTH STAR, 1893. The azimuths in the annexed table, applied properly to the magnetic bearing of Polaris at the time of its greatest elongation east or west, will give the true variation of the magnetic needle from a true north direction, and will be of great use to all surveyors and engineers. When the elongation is east the azimuth will be east and vice versa. At the present time, the line of "No Variation'of the needle runs southeasterly from near Toledo, Ohio, to a point on the Atlantic coast about fifty miles southwest of Cape Fear, N. C. East of that line the north end of the needle points west of a true north, and west of that line east of the true north. The country may therefore be divided into eastern and western magnetic regions. In the "Eastern Region" the bearing of Polaris at its western elongation, if eastward, added to the azimuth, gives the desired variation west; but if westward, the bearing taken from the azimuth gives the variation west. The bearing of Polaris at its eastern elongation will be east wird, and the azimuth subtracted gives the variation west. In the “Western Region" the bearing of Polaris at its eastern elongation, if westward, added to the azimuth, gives the variation east; but eastward, the bearing taken from the azimuth gives the variation east. The bearing of Polaris at its western elongation will be westward, and diminished by the azimuth gives the variation east. The azimuths in the table, given for two degree zones, are practically sufficient for all the United States except Alaska. For intermediate latitudes, or dates, the azimuths may be found by proportion sufficiently correct, or exactly by the formula, log-sine azimuth equal log-sine Polar Distance of Polaris. minus log-cosine latitude. The surveyor or engineer is on the line of "No Variation" when the bearing of Polaris at greatest elongation is the same as the azimuth,

Azimuth of Polaris at its Greatest Elongation East or West.

For the Latitudes and Dates Given Belos.
Month.
290 310 33°

350
37°

390 410 430 450 North North North North North North North North North OT 11101

11 10 11

O 11 January....

11 14 43/1 25 26 1 27 101 29 61 31 13 1 33 341 36 9 1 39 01 42 101 45 40 January.... 11 43 26

10

6
13 34

9

0 10 40 January.... 21 43 26

10

6
13
34

9
O 10

40 February... 1 43 26

10

13
31
9

10 40 • February.. 11 44 27

11
14 35 10

11

42 February 21 46

14
17 37 13

45 March... 1 48

16 12 19
40 15

17 47 March.. 11 50 34 18 14 21

42 18 10 20 March. 21

37 22
17

46
22

14 21 55 April 1 1 14 56 41

21

50
20

18 25 1 45 59 April 111 15 0 45 30

34 55 31

23 33 1 46 5 April.

21
3 49 34

37 1 33 50 33 27 37 May.

1
5 51 36
40 1 34 1 37 30 40

12 May.

11
8
39

43

5 41 33 44 16 May 21 10 57 42

46
7

36 49 19 June. 12 1 25 59

40 48

10

46 30 50 21 June, 11 13 1 26 00 45 41 50

11 47 40 31
June.
21 13

0
45 41 50

10 47 40 51 23 July

1
13
0 45 41 50

40
July.
11 13 1 26 0 45 41 50

15 47 40 51 July 21 121 25 59 44 40 48

10 46 39 50
August 1 10
57 42 38 46

7
36 49

18 August 11 8 54 39 35 43

5 41
33

16 August 21 5 51 36 32 40 1 34 0 37 30 40

12 September.. 11 15 2 48 32 28 36 1 33 58 33 26 36

7 September.. 11 1 14 59 45 30

26

31

33 1 46 5 September.. 21 56 41 25 21 29

18 25 1 45 39 October..... 1 52 36 21 16 24 45

12 22 53 October....

48 31
16 12 19

10
15

7 17 47 October.. 21 44 27 11

7 14

10 1 39 2 11 42 November.. | 1 401 23

71 29 2

9
30
51 38 57

6 36 November.. 11 36 18 1 27 2 1 28 57

251 36 01 511 42 1 30 November.. 21 33 141 26 58 5411 31 1 211 35 56 471 41 57 26 December.. 1 30 11 55 501 30 57 17 52 43 51

22 December.. 11 27

7 52 46

53 14 48 39 47 18 December.. 21 25

5

44 51 11 46 37 44 15 December.. 31 1 14 23 1 25 31 26 471 28 42 1 30 49 1 33 9 1 35 4311 38 34 1 41 431 45 12

PERPETUAL CALENDAR. Showing the Day of the Week of any Date, Old Style or New, Before or After Christ. EXPLANATION.-Under or over each

year of the century for which that se. month will be found the names or ab- quence may be used-old style dates, or breviations for the days of the week, ar- reckonings under the Julian Calendar, ranged in seven different orders or se- marked at the left; new style dates, acquences, reading from left to right.

cording to the Gregorian Calendar, at the These are marked as sequence A, se- right; thus 16 at left of sequence D shows quence B, and so on. At the right or left that this sequence is to be used for all old of each sequence is given the centurial style dates from 1600 to 1699, as the cate

10

51

34

50

26

20

... 11

49

of landing of Pilgrims. Dec. 11, 0. S., cause an irregularity of 12 years, either in 1620. At the right of sequence F, 16 one period, or in two intervals of 6 years shows that this is the sequence for all each, or in one of 7 and another of 3 new style dates in the same period, as the years, after which the regular intervals landing of Pilgrims, Dec. 21, 1620. The 18 will be successively repeated again. But at right of sequence D indicates this as notice the difference in the grouping of the one to use for the present century, the years un er January and February, 1800 to 1899.

and that of the other ten months. Take Above or beneath those sequences are the years in the column in which we find given, for each month, the odd years of 3 under any other month, and the calen. the century, from 00 to 99, reading from dar for those months repeats as follows: left to right and so arranged that all the 3, 8, 14, 25, 31, showing that the order years of a century in which the first of for an entire year recurs less frequently, the month falls on a certain day of the as in 3, 14, 25, 31. The order for any week are in the same column. Thus, take leap year is repeated at intervals of 28 the table for January and the sequence for years; thus the calendar for 1856 corre the present century, D, all the years in sponds with that for 1884, and this order the first column, 4, 9, 15, 26, etc., are over would obtain again in 1912 but for the Sunday in the sequence named; so the 1st omission of leap year in 1900, by which of January in all these years is Sunday. the interval is extended 12 years, and the In the second column are all the years in 29th of February will not fall on Friday which the 1st falls on Monday, and so on.

again until 1924. The order for any year If we bear in min: that the 8th, 15th, 224 next succeeding a leap year will be res and 29th of any month will come on the peated in 6 years, while the orders for the same day of the week as the 1st, this ar- second and third years following a leap rangement gives at once the day of the year will be repeated in 11 years. Then week of five dates in any month, and from the calendar for '81 will be repeated in these the day of any other date in that '87; the order that obtained in '82 will month can easily be found.

occur again in '93, but that for '83 corres Now with a given date to find the day sponds with '94. of the week, as Aug. 23, 1841. In the What has been shown as to leap year table for August find the given year 41; dates, as Feb. 29th, recurring on the same take the sequence in line with the centur. day of the week, is of course true of Inial year 18, D, and in this sequence abovo auguration Day, March 4th,

of every 41 we find Sunday. The August 1 in that fourth year. This came on Sunday in year was Sunday, and the 8th, 15th and 1821, 1819 and 1877, an! if 1900 were a 220 must have fallen on Sun ay also; and leap year it would occur again in 1900, if the 22d was Sunday, the 23d was Mon- but owing to that omission it will not reday. What day of the week was Dec. 11, cur until 1917. The irregular interval O. S., 1620? Use sequence D for 1600s 0. caused by the omission of leap year is S. and in this above 20 in December find sometimes 40 and sometimes 12 days. Friday. Then the 1st and the 8th came Under the Julian Calendar, established 10 on Friday, and the 11th must have been B. C. by Julius Caesar, the calendar for Monday.

an entire century was repeated every 700 Take the same date as given, new style, years, and therefore the sequence of day's Dec. 21, 1620. Use sequence F for the given here for 1700 O. S., G., answers also 1600s N. S. and above 20 find Tuesday, for the time 700 years earlier, i. e.. the which was the 1st and the 22d, and the century 1000 to 1099; also for the years 21st was Monday. Then the Pilgrims 300 to 399. In this way the sequences landed on Monday.

given may cover the time back to the be. It the last Thursday in November, 1885,

ginning of the Christian Era. I'nder the be Thanksgiving Day, what will be the Gregorian Calendar the orders are repeatdate? We find that in 1885 the 1st, and

ed every 400 years, and only four of the therefore the 29th, of November comes on

sequences are required, viz., C, D, E and Sunday: then the preceding Thursday, or F; F serving alike for 1600 and 2000, E NOV. 26th, is the last Thursday, or

for 1700 and 2100, etc. Thanksgiving Day.

Pope Gregory Xw in 1582 undertook to This arrangement involves no compari- reform the Julian Calendar. To correct son or distinction further than this: For

the errors that had accumulated and to the months of January and February of guard against future inaccuracies, he supcentesimal leap years only, as 1600, 2000, pressel ten days and provided for the etc., by Gregorian Calendar, the

omission of leap year every centesimal heavy-faced 00s in the first column are to

year, excepting every fourth centesimal be used, but for centesimal years not leap year. Under the Gregorian Calendar 1700, years the 00s in the secon/ column are re

1800 and 1900 are not counted as leap quired. By the Julian Calendar every years, but 1600 and 2000 are. This calencentesimal year was leap year;

ho

dar was adopted by Germany in 1700) and Gregorian Calendar only every fourth cen. by England not until 1752, by which time, tesimal year is a leap year. 1700 O. S.

as 1700 had passed as leap year, the dif. then should be regarded as a leap year, ference amounted to 11 days, and Parlia. while 1700 N. S. is not.

ment rectified the error by suppressing 11 As to the intervals between the times days in September of that year. The when a given day of the month falls on a Julian Calendar still prevails in Russia, certain week day, as Jan. 1st on Saturday, anl as 1800 has passed with them as leap this occurred in 1803-14-20-25-31, and so year, the difference between their reckonon at intervals of 11, 6, 5 and 6 years, ing and ours is 12 days, so that August 7 which intervals are repeated and would in Russia is the same as August 13 with continue without interruption but for the omission of leap year in 1900, which will

(See Page 9.)

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us.

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