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Emphasis His study of the varying vocal inflections proper for the expression of varying emotions is surprisingly elaborate, . . . has done more

to reduce oratory to an exact science than any other elocutionist with whom we have any acquaintance.-Philadelphia North American.

The pages devoted to the subject of emphasis are well worth the price of the book.Hamilton College Literary Monthly.

An exhaustive study of the elements of emphasis.-Christian Union.

and Cesture, Particularly full on the subject of Gestures, showing their natural language.- Wisconsin Journal of Education.

I have been particularly struck with the value of the chapters on Force and Gesticulation—the last a subject greatly neglected and in which we moderns are children when compared with the ancients. Action of a dignified and powerful sort is almost unknown.-Prof. Hoppin, of the Art School, Yale College.

With Selections for Declamation and Reading.
Are made with admirable judgment.—Boston Home Journal.
ELOCUTION.- Maud asks for a collection of good pieces to speak.

We cannot do better than to commend to her, and all lovers of elocution, “ The Orator's Manual." It contains a very choice selection of pieces for declamation and reading.–New York Tribune. Designed as a Text-Book for Schools and Colleges, and for Public Speakers who are obliged to study

without an Instructor. Hitherto there has been no text-book adapted to the necessities of the case of overloaded teachers of English. Teachers and students will owe a debt of gratitude to Prof. Raymond for the invaluable assistance he has rendered.-J. T. Murfee, Pres. Howard Coll.

I think it will do just the work I want done in my Freshman class.-J. M. Geery, Prof. English Literature, Ripon College.

Very useful, not only as a text-book, but to teachers who need some guide, also to private learners.-Wis. Jour. of Education.

It is undoubtedly the most complete and thorough treatise on oratory for the practical student ever published. If you cannot have Raymond as an instructor get his book, and if you are a diligent student you will find the Professor demonstrating on every page the principles of his art almost as clearly and emphatically as in the class-room.-The Educational Weekly, Chicago.

Per The special attention of Teachers is called to the suggestions in the Preface for the proper method of using this book.

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1. This book has been prepared to supply a want felt by the author while giving instruction in his own classes, and felt, as he believes, by many overworked teachers who often, without making a specialty of elocution, desire to give efficient instruction in it, yet have no manual at hand enabling them to do this, without a great expenditure of time and trouble. It is intended to present, in concise and comprehensive form, some new material, the results of the author's own experience in teaching; but over and beyond this to be a compend, amply illustrated, of the best that has been published or taught on the subject of which it treats with each department of the art so described that its methods shall be distinctly apprehended, 80 explained that the principles underlying their use shall be easily understood, and so few that they can be readily applied.

2. In many of its features, Oratory resembles music. A man can no more declaim well who has not passed the point where he is obliged to exhaust his mental energy in calculating how to modulate his voice in his inflections, or to move his hands in his gestures, than he can sing or play well while his attention is constantly turning from his theme in order to think how he shall form his notes in his throat, or use his fingers upon his instrument. Such things as these, before his performance can be easy, natural, expressive and effective, must be done automatically, as a result of persistent practice. So in Oratory. Certain things must be done automatically; and that they may be done thus, and at the same time correctly, the student must begin by practicing according to methods very accurately described to him. This fact is a sufficient excuse for the minute and full directions contained in this book,—those, for instance, referring to the methods of using the lungs and throat, of starting and ending inflections, of moving and holding the arms and hands in the gestures, etc. It is thought that they will be found to be of exceptional value, not only to students of elocution, but also to teachers; and though it is not supposed that they can take the place of competent oral instruction, especially with those just entering




upon the study, yet they will fail of their object if they do not prove to be just what are needed by clergymen and other public speakers who, for any reason, are unable to obtain the services of an instructor.

3. But besides describing the elements of the art, and how to acquire facility in using them, a manual of this sort must direct the student when and where to use them. Elocution, like music, must deal with the great subject of expression. And here the important matter is to ground the principles presented not on the letter of passages but on their spirit; not on the phraseology but on the mind's attitude toward the phraseology, upon one's judgment of the thought that it contains, upon his motive in using it, and upon the degree of energy or kind of feeling which it awakens in him. In proportion as these requirements are met by the directions that are given him, a man may speak according to rule and yet maintain his individuality and freedom. His knowledge of the art of elocution will be merely a knowledge of the art of expressing, and of impressing on others, his own meanings, motives and feelings. He will be a master and not a slave of the rules that he follows.

4. Once more: any number of rules all of which must be applied with as little forethought as in speaking, must be few; otherwise the mind will be so burdened in trying to recall them that it will not be able to act readily in using them. Great pains have been taken in this book, by means of classifications and diagrams, to reduce the general principles that need to be emphasized to a minimum ; but at the same time to make each of these so comprehensive that all of them together shall include a treatment of the whole subject.

5. On this point, - in trying to devise how the art may be taught and mastered with the least possible waste of time and labor, the author has expended no little thought. It is impossible to refer here to all the “short-cuts" that this book recommends. But as an aid to teachers who have not yet matured their courses of instruction, some suggestions based on his own experience and methods may not prove unacceptable.

6. With a class as a whole, it seems best to begin by teaching something about emphasis and gesture. The least experienced student can understand why these subjects need to be studied; but, as a rule, it is only after he has been led, through studying them, to realize the deficiencies in his own voice that he is prepared to devote him

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