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quence of Irish orthography in MSS. is well known: a great part of it is due to the fact that the scribes sometimes retained the ancient written form and sometimes followed the changed pronunciation of their own time. I have given the forms as I found them and have only allowed myself a certain uniformity in the paradigms.

Old Irish is the language of the vilith and ixth centuries, as it is found in the glosses of the MSS. of Milan, S. Gall, Würzburg, Karlsruhe, Turin, &c. In the Appendix of the Grammatica Celtica specimens of them are to be seen. The Turin glosses have been published in extenso by C. Nigra (Paris, 1869), and by Stokes in the Goidelica. In the latter are numerous shorter Old Irish glosses gleaned from other MSS. together with the Irish annotations of the Book of Armagh, a MS. of the ixth century. The Codex of S. Gall (gleanings from which are edited in Nigra's Reliquie Celtiche, Turin, 1872) is to be published in full by Ascoli after the Milan Codex. [Le Chiose Irlandesi del Codice di San Gallo. Archiv. Glott. Ital. Vol. VI., 1880. In the meantime a

. collection of the Old Irish glosses in the minor manuscripts, but including those of the Würzburg and the two Karlsruhe manuscripts, was published by H. Zimmer, Glossa Hibernicæ Berol. 1881.]

The xth and xith centuries are scarcely represented by more important MSS. [The Irish of the Stowe Missal is attributed by Wh. Stokes to the with or with century. Ztsch. f. Vergl. Spof. XXVI., p. 298.] The oldest Middle Irish MSS. begin about the year 1100. To this period belongs the Leabhar na huidre (Royal Irish Academy), Dublin, published in facsimile 1870. The Liber Hymnorum well known through Stokes' Goidelica is somewhat later. The Book of Leinster belonging to the Xilth century will also be published in facsimile (published 1880) and from the somewhat later MSS. the Leabhar Breac was published in 1876 in two volumes by the Royal Irish Academy. My Irische Texte contains interesting texts taken from these sources. Mr Whitley Stokes who looked over the first two sheets in proof noted that x, y, z were not mentioned in § 1. The Irish x (excluding borrowed words) is only found for cs when these sounds occur in sequence, owing to the suppression of a vowel, e.g. in foxal metaplasmus for fo-co-sal Latin salio (cf. § 336). Y only occurs in borrowed words as ymmon=Latin hymnus. Z is less still a true Irish sound, yet compare baitzisi baptizavit eum Goida p. 87, line 1 (Book of Armagh). On § 11 Stokes suggests that the Irish âi answers to the Cymric ai and the Irish ói to the Cymric u. It seems to me that this distinction which I had myself remarked cannot be carried through. On $ 57 Stokes notes some words with iu in initial sound in which he thinks that the i represents an original j, e.g. iugsuide tribunal Sg. 50* (Z2 855) iúrad factum est (Book of Armagh) the last allied to the Old Gaulish




LEIPZIG, December 22, 1878.




Cardinal, $ 229-232; Ordinal, $ 233; Numeral substan.

tives, § 234; Multiplicative, $ 235; Distributive, § 236.


Frepositions in composition, § 241–247.




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1. as, § 384—385 ; 2. stů, § 386–387; 3. vel, § 388; 4.

Bhú, § 389.

X. PARTICLES, $ 390—403


1. Negative, $ 390, 391; 2. Question and Answer, $ 392

_393; 3. Conjunctions, $ 394—400; 4. Particles used

as prefixes, $ 401–403.

Addenda (on the position of the long accent, value in
quantity, accent and so forth)






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