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§ 2. The Prestige of Science .

46

§ 3. The Agreement between Science and Common Sense

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§ 4. The Properties of Bodies

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§ 5. Explanation and Description in Science

53

§ 6. Conditions of Scientific Description .

54

§ 7. Illustrations of Scientific Method. Galileo's Conception

of Acceleration.

§ 8. The Conception of Mass

§ 9. The Conservation of Energy

58

§ 10. The Analytical Version of Scientific Concepts

60

CHAPTER IV. NAIVE AND CRITICAL NATURALISM .

63

§ 1. The Two Varieties of Naturalism .

63

§ 2. Three Characteristic Philosophical Errors. 'The Specula-

tive Dogma'

64

$ 3. “Pseudo-simplicity,' and 'Indefinite Potentiality'

66

§ 4. Naive Naturalism. Büchner's Monism of Matter

68

§ 5. Spencer's Monism of Force .

70

§ 6. Haeckel's Monism of Substance

72

§ 7. Critical Naturalism.

75

$ 8. The Sensationalism of Karl Pearson

76

§ 9. The Modified Position of Ernst Mach

78

§ 10. The Experimentalism of H. Poincaré .

79

$11. The Failure of Critical Naturalism. The Priority of Logic

and Mathematics. .

82

CHAPTER V. RELIGION AND THE LIMITS OF SCIENCE

85

§ 1. Religious Philosophy and the Limits of Science

85

§ 2. Naturalism and Supernaturalism.

88

$ 3. The General Character of Contemporary Criticism of

Science

89

§ 4. The Fallibility of Science

91

§ 5. The Disparagement of the Descriptive Method

§ 6. The Ideal of Descriptive Economy .

§ 7. The Option of Hypotheses .

§ 8. The 'Real' Cause and ‘Mere' Description

§ 9. The Unreality of Space and Time. The Kantian Argu-

ment

§ 10. Infinity and Continuity.

103

$ 11. The Priority of Consciousness.

105

$ 12. Science as a Limited Body of Truth

108

IDEALISM

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CHAPTER VI. THE CARDINAL PRINCIPLE OF IDEALISM

113

§ 1. The General Meaning of Modern Idealism

113

§ 2. Platonic Idealism, or Teleological Rationalism

114

§ 3. Rationalism Purged of Teleology by Spinoza

116

§ 4. The Idealistic Revolution .

117

$ 5. The Beginnings of Modern Idealism. The Dualistic Ver-

sion of Knowledge. .

119

$ 6. Berkeley's Refutation of Dualism.

$ 7. Epistemological Monism

124

§ 8. Berkeley's Proofs of Idealism. 'Definition by Initial Pred-

ication'. .

126

$ 9. The Argument from the Ego-centric Predicament'

128

$ 10. The Cardinal Principle and the Berkeleyan Proofs in Con-

temporary Idealism

132

CHAPTER VII. OBJECTIVE OR TRANSCENDENTAL IDEALISM

135

$1. The General Meaning of Post-Kantian Idealism

135

§ 2. The Sceptical Crisis in Hume

§ 3. Kant to the Rescue. The 'Categories' and 'Synthetic

Unity'.

139

$ 4. Kant's Relations to Idealism

142

§ 5. Diverse Tendencies. “Critical' Idealism

144

§ 6. Metaphysical Idealism. Intellectualism .

146

§ 7. Voluntaristic or Ethical Idealism

150

§ 8. Neo-Romanticism

152

$ 9. The New Idealism and the Cardinal Principle

§ 10. The New Proof of Idealism from Synthetic Unity

$11. The Revival of the Berkeleyan Arguments

$ 12. Objective Idealism as an Escape from Subjectivism

162

CHAPTER VIII. ABSOLUTE IDEALISM AND RELIGION .

164

§ 1. The General Meaning of Absolutism

164

§ 2. Formalism, Arising from the Logical Basis of Absolutism . 166

$ 3. Equivocation Arising from the Attempt to Escape

Formalism

169

§ 4. The Dogmatic Character of Absolutism. Agnosticism

171

$ 5. Transition to Absolute Idealism. The Absolute Cognitive

Consciousness.

174

6. Formalism in Absolute Idealism

175

§ 7. Equivocation in Absolute Idealism

180

§ 8. Dogmatism in Absolute Idealism

183

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CHAPTER IX. THE PRAGMATIC THEORY OF KNOWLEDGE

197

§ 1. The General Meaning of Pragmatism.

197

§ 2. The Pragmatist Conception of the Theory of Knowledge 199

§ 3. The Role of Ideas in Knowledge

§ 4. The Meaning of Truth .

203

§ 5. Modes of Verification. Verification by Perception and by

Consistency

205

§ 6. Verification by Operation and by Sentiment

207

§ 7. Verification by General Utility

§ 8. The Realistic Version of Pragmatism .

213

§ 9. The Subjectivistic Version of Pragmatism

215

§ 10. Realistic and Subjectivistic Interpretations. Satisfaction.

The Making of Reality .

217

$11. The Dilemma of Pragmatism .

219

CHAPTER X. IMMEDIATISM versus INTELLECTUALISM

§ 1. Definition of the Issue

§ 2. Non-intellectual Experience, or Immediacy

224

§ 3. Immediacy Implied in Mediate Knowledge

225

§ 4. The Abstractness of Concepts. Vicious Intellectualism" 228

§ 5. The Failure of Concepts to Grasp Reality. Radical Anti-

intellectualism. .

229

§ 6. The Failure of Anti-intellectualism to Understand the In-

tellectual Method. Concept as Function and as Content. 231

§ 7. The Confusion between the Relations of Symbols and the

Relations Symbolized.

232

§ 8. The Supposition that Concepts are Necessarily Privative . 234

§ 9. The Misunderstanding Concerning Analysis . .

236

§ 10. The Supposed Superiority of the Immediacy that Precedes

Analysis

237

$ 11. The Subjectivistic Version of Immediatism .

239

$ 12. The Realistic Version of Immediatism

240

CHAPTER XI. PLURALISM, INDETERMINISM AND RELIGIOUS FAITH 242

§ 1. Pluralism as the Sequel to Empiricism. The Additive

Character of Knowledge .

143

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Perception . .

§ 9. Proprio-ceptive Sensations .

§ 10. The Content of Desire, Memory and Thought .

$ 11. The Alleged Impossibility of Observing Mental Action

$ 12. Mental Action as Nervous System

$ 13. Mental Action as Interest

§ 14. Mental Content as Identified by Interested Action

$ 15. A Summary Definition of Mind

CHAPTER XIII. A REALISTIC THEORY OF KNOWLEDGE

I. The Theory of Immanence

§ 1. The Old Realism and the New

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